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Kilkhampton Rectory - Kilkhampton

Designed and built by Scott in around 1860 for the Rev. Arthur Christopher Tynne, it has three stories and is built from stone, with square headed window and a projecting entrance porch with a pointed arch. It is now much extended and completely altered internally.

St James the Great - Kilkhampton

Scott restored this church also in 1860 and again for Tynne who was the rector. His patron was Lord John Tynne, Arthur’s brother, who also gave the church an organ from Westminster Abbey which was installed in 1859. Scott knew him from his work at Westminster Abbey. Scott restored the Tudor bench end panels as necessary and also provided new choir stalls and a pulpit.

Lanhydrock House - Lanhydrock

Between 1857-64, Scott worked for Thomas James Agar-Robartes (1808-82) then M.P. for East Cornwall, later made 1st Baron Robartes in 1869, to modernise and remodelled his house at Lanhydrock. This included building a low battlemented wall connecting the gatehouse to the house, laying out terraces and formal flowerbeds, and adding a coach house, stables and grooms' quarters to the south-east. The house was later largely gutted by fire and Scott’s assistant on his previous work, Richard Coad, rebuilt and extended the house from 1881.


Workhouse - Liskeard

In 1836, the partners produced an explanation of the particular benefits of their plan, which was sent to the unions that they were canvassing. They were clearly trying to produce answers to the criticisms that had been levelled at Kempthorne's standard layouts. Their most obvious change was to make the entrance through an arched gateway in the centre of a detached single-storey entrance range, containing the porters lodge, the chapel and the board room where the public had contact with the inmates without being involved in the harsh realities of their supervised day-to-day existence. This took place in a three storey range parallel to the entrance range, in the centre of which was an octagonal three or four storey tower, often capped with a lantern. This, as in Kempthorne's plans, was the residence of the Master and Matron, but unlike the model plans, which assumed that they would be married, provision was made for the octagon to be divided into separate residences. But the main improvement was the provision of a separate infirmary block at the rear of the workhouse, instead of the sick, often with infectious diseases, being accommodated at the ends of the main sleeping areas. The new separate entrance block, with its big double height archway, also provided an opportunity for some sort of architectural display. The arch was very classical in detail, with its voisoirs picked out and placed between pilasters, and capped by a pediment. Inside the archway there was usually stone vaulting. The lower wings on either side of the arch, containing the chapel and boardroom, had well proportioned Georgian windows separated by pilasters.

The circular shows the partners’ genuine concern about the paupers who had to inhabit their buildings and these changes were clearly designed to give the workhouse a more human and welcoming face, which in some instances, such as Horncastle, was further emphasised by a long approach avenue. The enthusiasm with which they set about implementing the conditions of the Poor Law Act perhaps indicates that the youthful partners believed that it would produce a better life for the poor, and that the criticisms that were already being levelled at the system could be answered by improvements to the design of the building. Although personal contacts provided the firm with its initial commissions, competitions increasingly became an important means of getting work for Scott and Moffatt. Every week they went to Peele's Coffee House in Fleet Street, where all the newspapers were kept, to search those from the provinces for advertisements for workhouse competitions. Scott was later extremely critical of the competition arrangements, which ‘were open in every sense and each competitor was at liberty to take any step he thought good’. The Guardians, beyond knowing how many paupers they required to be housed, seemed to have had little idea of their building requirements, and only allowed the minimum possible time for the submission of schemes.

Moffatt had apparently overcome his misgivings about his appearance as he would travel to the place where the workhouse was to be built and interview the Chairman and Clerk of the Board along with any other Guardians who had ideas about the proposed building. He then returned to Carlton Chambers, where ‘we set to work with violence to make the design & prepare the competition drawings often working all night as well as all day’. Moffatt ‘was the best arranger of a plan the hardest worker & the best hand at advocating the merits of what he had to propose I ever met with … Constantly communicating with the most experienced governors’ to improve its layout, while Scott probably drew the perspectives, which he felt were ‘regarded as attractive elements in a competition’. In May 1834, he wrote to The Architectural Magazine defending the use of highly finished drawings showing the proposed building set in an attractive landscape with water-colour washes indicating the form of the building. They would then rush at the last moment to the General Post Office at St. Martin's-le-Grand, near St. Paul's Cathedral, or The Angel at Islington, to send off their drawings, or to set off themselves with their work, to submit to the Guardians. Scott describes the excitement that he felt travelling on the box seat of a mail coach which ‘cleared eleven miles an hour all the way down, stoppings included! It was a splendid perfection of machinery, but its fate was sealed the great lines of railway being in rapid progress’.

One of the many benefits to basing their practice in London were the lines of mail coaches radiating from London which enabled Scott and Moffatt to reach all parts of England, and this pattern was reinforced when the first railway terminals were opened in London in 1838. In the coaching days, Moffatt ‘would start off by the mail travell [sic] all night, meet the Board of Guardians, & perhaps win the competition & return during the next night & set to work on another design’. As Scott recalls, prior to the submission date for schemes there was nothing to prevent the competitors advocating the merits of their individual schemes to any of the Guardians:

While on the day on which the designs were to be examined the competitors were usually waiting in the ante-room & were called in one by one to give personal explanations & the decision was often announced then & there to the assembled candidates. Moffatt was most successful in this kind of fighting having an instinctive perception of which men to aim at pleasing and of how to meet their views and to address himself successfully to meet their particular temperaments.

Scott found that with competitions in particular, the Guardians would select the most attractive looking building: ‘external appearance began to timidly to be thought of and estimates stealthily to creep upwards and many a row and uproar did this produce, to the joy of disappointed competitors’. Scott established that the local Guardians were inclined to have a good looking building that worked well, rather than adhere too closely to the rigours of the Commissioners at Somerset House. No doubt this was another advantage of the practice being within a few minutes walk of Somerset House, where special cases could be pleaded by the two partners.

The peak of workhouse building for Scott and Moffatt were the two years of 1837 and 1838, when thirty buildings were being built at an average cost of £5,000. This would produce for the partnership over £5,000 of fees. So from comparative poverty at the time of the death of his father in February 1835, Scott some three years later, at the age of twenty-seven, would have had an income approaching £2,000 a year. It is not surprising that he now decided that he had sufficient means to overcome his mother's reservations about the Scotts having designs on the Oldrid money, and he and Caroline decided to get married.

Liskeard was authorised in 1837 and was built to a Scott and Moffatt plan in 1839, in a classical style, and predominantly Scott’s influence. There was no arch between the entrance blocks, just gates. Intended to accommodate 350 inmates, the Poor Law Commissioners authorised the sum of £5,250 on its construction. The building is now partly demolished with the upper floors gone.

Murray, [King, R. J.], Handbook to the Cathedrals of England, Southern Division Part I, Winchester, Salisbury, Exeter, Wells (John Murray, London, 1861), p. 644.
Scott’s Recollections, I 285-9, 292-3.

Workhouse, Madron - Penzance

The Scott and Moffatt stone Jacobean style design was approved in 1837 and the tender of £4649 by William Veal accepted and the building authorised in 1838. It was intended to house 400 paupers. Only the entrance range and infirmary survive today. (see also Liskeard)

Polwhele House - Polwhele

Scott carried out alterations and additions to the house for Thomas Roxbrugh Polwhele (1831-1909) in around 1870. The old east wing was altered and a block added to the end. He also added a new south porch, stable block and new east front, all in granite. It has been a school since the 1970s.

Workhouse - Redruth

This was a Scott and Moffatt Elizabethan style standard plan building, built between 1838-9. Intended to accommodate 450 inmates, the Poor Law Commissioners authorised the sum of £6,000 on its construction. The main accommodation block was demolished in the late nineteenth century. (see also Liskeard)

Workhouse - St Austell

Another Scott and Moffatt standard plan, built between 1838-9. The Poor Law Commissioners authorised the sum of £5,650 on construction of the building which was intended to accommodate 300 inmates. It was demolished by 1990. (see also Liskeard)

Workhouse - St Columb

Moffatt felt that with the numerous unions being formed in the West Country, he could use his contacts in that area to expand the work of the office. However, he told Scott that he felt that ‘his youthful appearance’, in fact he was only a year younger than Scott, was a hindrance to getting work and suggested that if he could say that ‘he had a partner already in practice whose name he could use to back him’, this problem might be resolved. They therefore agreed to form a partnership to procure and build workhouses in the west, with each partner keeping other work that they had obtained to themselves. According to Scott:

The effect of Moffatts new arrangement was magical! He followed up Union hunting into Devonshire & Cornwall with almost uniform success and my poor little quartette of works round my old home soon became as nothing when compared with the engagements which flowed in upon us as partners. Moffatt's own exertions were almost superhuman, & when I recollect that no railways came to his help I feel perfectly amazed to think what he effected!

Scott realised that Kempthorne's model arrangements were not sacrosanct and that a better design could be acceptable to the Commissioners and the local Guardians. The partners were on a relentless treadmill. Between the years 1835 and 1841, Scott, or Moffatt, or Scott and Moffatt as a partnership, built about forty workhouses in different parts of England, with the main groups in Devon, Cornwall, Somerset and Wiltshire, with smaller groups, presumably the Scott areas, in Staffordshire, Lincolnshire and Essex. Moffatt's area to the south-west was, however, the main source of work for the practice.

Both St Columb (1838-9) and Truro Workhouses (1849) were by Moffatt working by himself, using the standard Scott and Moffatt plan.

Scott’s Recollections, I 277-9, 281-2.

Treverbyn Vean - Liskeard

It seems likely that Scott had some association with the design of this house through his assistant Richard Coad, who came from Liskeard and was probably originally articled to Henry Rice before joining Scott’s office in 1847. Rice worked with Scott from 1857-62 on this project. The client was Charles Lygon Somers Cocks who built the house after retirement from the army. He was strongly influenced by the Gothic Revival employing William Burgess to design the interior. It has now been subdivided into private housing.