St Mary's - Adderbury
Scott restored this church, particularly the nave and aisles, in 1866-70. The designs for tracery on the windows were based on Bloxham and his drawings show the old tracery before it was replaced. His sons carried out further restorations, George Gilbert in 1873-7 and John Oldrid in 1886.
St Mary's fittings - Adderbury
Scott added a rood loft to the reinstated old rood screen and an organ case later on in 1877.
School and school mistress's house - Black Bourton
In 1865, Scott designed a school for 45 pupils with a mistress's house, which was built from stone and slate by Job Pettifer of Bampton. The land was given by the Duke of Marlborough and the cost met largely by the vicar, James Lupton.
St Mary's - Broughton
Scott started restoring this church in 1877 for the Rev. C. F. Wyatt and the work was completed after his death by George Gilbert junior by 1880. They restored the chancel, the tracery on the east window, the nave roof was rebuilt and new chancel and aisle roofs were completed to their original height. They also renewed the windows and provided a new pulpit in Gothic style.
Sedila and Piscina, St Mary's - Broughton
In 1858, Scott provided a sedila and piscina using an old fragment from the church.
Memorial to Ellen Twistleton, St Mary's - Broughton
In 1862, Scott designed a memorial plaque on the east wall of the south aisle to the Honourable Ellen Twisleton, wife of Edward Turner Boyd Twistleton, a portrait medallion in an alabaster frame.
Broughton Castle - Broughton
Sometime in around 1863-4, Scott was commissioned by Frederick Benjamin Twistleton, 16th Lord Saye and Sele, whom he knew through his work on Hereford Cathedral where Twistleton was an archdeacon, to restore his castle. George Gilbert junior took over the project in 1865, so Scott did not carry out much work here although the geometric windows at the west end of the north and south walls may be his, while the Jacobean style doors and doorcases in the rooms at the west end of the first floor were probably designed by his son.
St Mary's Chapel - Burcot
Scott built this Chapel of ease of Dorchester Abbey in 1869, at a cost of £700, in a Gothic style with an apse to the chancel and four single light windows. It is built from red brick with wood mullioned windows and half-timbered sections at the west end. There is a shingled conical bell turret and the east end is polygonal with lancets. He also designed a wooden rood screen. It was later used as school room and is now a house.
St Michael and All Angels - Clifton Hampden
The real importance to Scott of St. Mark's, Swindon, was that it introduced him to the Great Western director, George Gibbs (1785-1842), whose family was soon to become an important source of work for Scott. George Gibbs had just inherited the manor of Clifton Hampden in Oxfordshire when he died on 21 August 1842. He was succeeded by his eldest son Henry Hucks Gibbs (1819-1907), who immediately commissioned Scott to restore Clifton Hampden church with a legacy from his father's estate and to place in it an elaborate tomb for his father with recumbent effigy, commemorating the benefaction. The work on the church was carried out between 1843-4 and was the start of a twenty year programme during which Scott transformed the small village into a highly picturesque combination of buildings and landscape. He was particularly helped by the natural beauty of the setting, with the old church perched on a cliff-top by the edge of the river Thames. This, like so many others, had been allowed to fall into a ruinous state in the eighteenth century. Scott wrote that ‘we had hardly anything left to restore - it is rather a refoundation (keeping in the main the old floor)’. The result is a Victorian church built of rubble stone walling with smooth ashlar dressings. Scott took the remains of the old church as his basis for his design, which has early fourteenth century details, particularly an elaborate bell turret which sits diagonally over the western gable and has a small spire and ogee arches over the bell openings. The cost of the restoration was £1800, which necessitated supplementing George Gibbs legacy by funds from his widow and son.
St Michael and All Angels enlargement - Clifton Hampden
Scott also carried later work on the church in 1864-6, enlarging the north aisle and adding a vestry and organ chamber. At the same time, he provided a pulpit and a chancel screen in brass with bronze figures.
School - Clifton Hampden
Scott's work in the village was very much a family affair, with a brother, William Gibbs (1790-1875), providing the school in 1847, which Scott built as an attractive little stone building with a central gabled tower, surmounted by a bell-turret.
Clifton Hampden Bridge - Clifton Hampden
Clifton Hampden Bridge is the only major bridge that Scott designed. It was based on medieval forms with seven Gothic arches and pointed abutments, and built of local red brick with a toll house at the south end. It was built in 1864 by Henry Hucks Gibbs, the Lord of the Manor, at a cost of £3617. It provides an ideal viewing place for Scott's picturesque composition with the little cliff-top church providing the focal point to the scene.
Clifton Hampden Parsonage - Clifton Hampden
Scott seems to have done other work in the village, including the lych gate to the church in 1843, and perhaps providing more appropriate ‘old-world’ fronts to the cottages. He also built the parsonage in 1843-6 from grey stone with a red tiled roof in a Gothic style at a cost of £3900. It later became the Manor House.
Dorchester Abbey - Dorchester-on-Thames
The restoration of Dorchester Abbey was begun under the auspices of the Oxford Architectural Historical Society. Scott succeeded William Butterfield, appointed to the job by the Rev. W. C. Macfarlane in 1859, and continued work on the building until 1874. This included restoring the south end of the chancel aisle and two chantry chapels, the roofs were raised to their original pitch, rebuilding the vaulting at the east end of the south aisle and adding vaulting to four bays of the south choir aisle in accordance with the original intentions. Scott also changed Butterfield’s re-roofing in stone slates to clay tiles. He designed a reredos for the Abbey but this remained unexecuted (Drawing Collection, RIBA, p. 28). In the churchyard, he restored the cross for Macfarlane in around 1872, charging £3 3s for the work. The head and cross are now inside the Abbey.
Missionary Training College, High Street, Queen St - Dorchester-on-Thames
Scott rebuilt this from older eighteenth century buildings in red, white and black brickwork, and also provided a house for the college vice principal and chaplain with half timbering and red fish-scale tiles in 1877-8. It has big clustered chimney stacks and a porch in a polygonal turret. The founder of the college W. C. Macfarlane wrote A Short Account of Dorchester in 1881, which describes the history of the town and buildings. They are now in residential use.
National School, St Martin's Lane - Dorchester-on-Thames
Scott built this school in 1871, as carved on a stone in the gable, from red brick. It has gables, a rose window and two pointed windows with tile hung heads. It is now the village hall.
St Mary Magdalene's - Duns Tew
Between 1861-2 Scott undertook a restoration here which included rebuilding large parts of the church for Sir Henry Dashwood. This included a new chancel and chancel arch, plus the north aisle which was also widened and he partly rebuilt the south wall of the nave. The old west tower and the south porch were retained although this was re-roofed, along with a decorative north arcade, and the Norman south doorway was reused. The rebuilding made the style of the church more elaborate than the original.
St Nicholas the Confessor's - Forest Hill with Shotover
This church was restored and enlarged by Scott in 1852 at a cost of £930 and built by George Wyatt. He provided a new north aisle, which was decoratively painted, and organ chamber, the old north door being replaced in the new north wall. He also provided a new east vestry and rebuilt the south wall of the chancel. He removed the gallery and replaced the plaster ceiling with a boarded roof and the pigeon-house like structure was removed from the old bell turret. He also renewed some of the windows. He refitted the church with a new pulpit, stone sedelia, font and pews.
St Mary's - Great Milton
Scott restored the church at a cost of over £2,000, with George Wyatt of Oxford as builder, in 1850-1. The roofs of nave, aisles and tower were newly boarded, with a new chancel roof and the east end of the chancel rebuilt. The walls were underpinned and a gutter provided at the base of the walls. The rood stairs, the sedilia, piscina and aumbry were opened up and the piscina in the south aisle was reconstructed based on existing fragments. The church was reseated and new choir stalls, based on those in Dorchester Abbey, were made. He also provided oak altar rails which have since been replaced.
St Mary's - Hardwick with Tusmore
This restoration was planned by Scott but as it started in 1878, was completed after his death by his son George Gilbert. Carried out for the 2nd Earl of Effingham, it cost £2000. The work included restoring and renewing the roofs using old timbers, rebuilding the nave, a new south aisle, porch and bell turret and the west window and north door were opened up. A new altar, pulpit and lectern were also provided.
Holy Trinity, Trinity Road, Headington Quarry - Headington
This church was built in 1848-50, at a cost of about £3000, in Early English, Decorated style. It was built of stone from the local Quarry Farm Hollows, with Wyatts of Oxford as the contractor. It has a chancel, nave, south aisle, south porch and a gable bellcote at the west end.
St Nicholas's - Kiddington
In 1845, Scott rebuilt the chancel of this church in apsidal form and on Norman foundations.
St Mary the Virgin - Kirtlington
Scott rebuilt the chancel and chancel arch of this church in 1877 for Sir William and Lady Dashwood at a cost of £2000, his fees coming to £119. He discovered Norman apsidal foundations and his reconstruction of the chancel used medieval details as a pattern for the carved chancel furnishings.
St Michael and All Angels - Leafield
This was a new church built by Scott between 1858-60 for the Rev. Henry Worsley, in Early English style, in stone. Lord Churchill gave stone for the building, Worsley contributing £2000 towards the cost of £4600. The builder was James Thomas of Abingdon. It had a stone spire on an octagon on a central tower with quasi transepts. The west front has full height buttresses. The spire was damaged during the winter of 1864-5 and was replaced by a smaller, lighter version.
Leafield Vicarage - Leafield
At the same time as working on the church, Scott built a stone vicarage for Worsley. This is irregular and gabled, with plain mullioned windows and a Gothic porch with a trefoil arch.
St Mary's - North Aston
Scott enlarged and restored this church in 1866-7, extending the north aisle eastwards.
Exeter College buildings and chapel - Oxford
Scott had entered the lucrative and prestigious world of the old English universities through Oxford. It was not until 1860 that he was first employed on a Cambridge college. Thereafter, both universities provided him with a steady flow of work throughout the rest of his life. Scott was deeply upset that of all the male members of his family, he was the one who had not been to university and could not boast any academic qualifications. But there is little doubt about his own scholarship and while Exeter College was still in its early stages, the opportunity occurred to apply this towards a purpose, which could eventually lead to a professorship in a respected academic institution.
Compared with the somewhat spasmodic offerings from his family's university of Cambridge, Oxford provided Scott with an almost continuous flow of work throughout his life, but again he is amazingly coy about this work. There is no mention in the Recollections of anything that he did at Oxford after Exeter College, although he was busier in the city when he was writing the later parts of his Recollections than he had ever been before.
As with much of his other work, Scott's commission to enlarge Exeter College, Oxford, stemmed from new legislation and this work established him as an architect for the universities that he had not been given the chance to enter as a student. But he only mentions Exeter College in his Recollections as among his ‘Works to be noted since 1845’, and the Rector's House, along with other secular buildings, further on. Scott's coyness over Exeter College, as elsewhere in the Recollections, was probably because of family involvement. When he was writing his Recollections early in 1864, his third son, Albert Henry (1844-65), had just left home to study at Exeter College. Whether Albert had obtained his place through his father's connections with the college authorities cannot be ascertained, but Scott obviously knew the Rector, Dr. John Lightfoot (1803-87), and Albert was the first Scott to go to Oxford rather than Cambridge.
The fact that Scott was chosen in 1854, in preference to his more Ecclesiologically correct colleagues, seems to indicate the extent of the swing away from the High Church ideals of the Oxford Movement, which had dominated religious argument in the university from 1835 until the departure of John Henry Newman (1801-90) in 1843. Although Carpenter was busy elsewhere, in 1854 he had built nothing at Oxford. Butterfield had restored the chapel of Merton College, but Scott's massive counter-blast against the Oxford Movement, in his Martyrs' Memorial, only a few yards from Exeter, was inescapable. He had also built a small church at Headington Quarry, on the eastern edge of the city, in 1848.
In the early 1850's there were demands for the university to be modernised and become more accessible to a wider range of society. This led to an Act of Parliament in 1854. Entry to the university was no longer restricted to members of the Church of England and teachers were allowed to marry. Exeter's building programme was a response to the need to accommodate more students required by these reforms. However, this could only be achieved by proving a bigger and better college chapel. The old seventeenth century chapel was too small and the only possible direction to expand it was to the east. But to enable this to take place, the Rector's house, which stood immediately to the east, would have to be demolished. Various alternatives were being considered when Scott was appointed in 1854, including re-siting the chapel on the east side of the quadrangle where its entrance would be opposite the main entrance to the college, and even as late as 1856, there were ‘repeated debates’ about the site of the new chapel.
However, on his appointment, Scott started by extending an existing 1830 Gothic style range westwards along Broad Street with a new entrance tower and a range of student rooms on the opposite side of the entrance. The new range cost nearly £4000 and it was finished in 1856 with the completion of the tower, by which time the arguments over the position of the chapel had been finally settled. Scott was, perhaps, rather relieved when it was decided that the Rector would have to move so that the chapel could be rebuilt on its old site where, like the Sainte-Chapelle, it could only be seen from within the quadrangle and its east end would be unobstructed by other buildings. However, like his French exemplar, he managed to give his chapel a presence beyond the surrounding buildings by proving it with a fleche which forms a prominent termination to the view along Ship Street from the Cornmarket in the city centre.
The Sainte-Chapelle provided Scott with a general shape and superficial appearance for Exeter, but his detailed design is very different. Although the same length, his building is a much more solid structure, with five bays of three-light Geometric windows separated by wide buttresses, compared to four bays of four-light windows separated by slender buttresses of the medieval building. Scott had decided to use proper heavy stone vaulting but characteristically felt it was necessary to sacrifice the light and airiness, which had been achieved six hundred years earlier, for Victorian solidity. Externally he was also unable to reproduce the soaring verticality of his exemplar, as the Sainte-Chapelle is a two-storey building and Exeter has only a single storey.
The foundation stone of the chapel was laid on 29 November 1856 and the builder was J. R. Symm of Oxford who also carried out much of the woodwork.
The stone carving, including the tympanum over the main door and some excellent naturalistic leaf capitals on the internal screen, were by Philip. Internally it is most impressive, with the fifty feet high vaulting in bands of Bath stone and darker stone from Temple Guiting in the Cotswolds, coloured marble columns, mosaics by Salviati and ironwork by Skidmore. The chapel cost £17,000, and was consecrated on 18 October 1859. It was later enriched with stained glass by Clayton and Bell and a tapestry designed by Burne-Jones and made by William Morris. Morris and Burne-Jones both entered Exeter College in 1853 intending to become priests and were students when Scott embarked on the reconstruction programme. Perhaps Morris's dislike of Scott's work, which culminated in a fierce campaign against his restorations shortly before Scott's death, stemmed from the huge Victorianisation of the college which was going on whilst he was a student there.
In 1856 Scott rebuilt the college library on the site which had earlier been proposed for the chapel, between the quadrangle and the Bodleian Library. It is a two-storey building with a turret staircase in the angle between it and a single-storey wing running parallel to the end of the Bodleian. This is an attractive-looking building that fits well into the college garden between the rear of the old quadrangle and the great mass of the Bodleian Library. In 1857 Scott built the new house for the Rector, Dr. Lightfoot, facing the eastern end of his chapel. Lightfoot had been the Rector since 1854 and presided over the whole building programme. His entire adult life was centred on the college, having been a student there, and he eventually died, some thirty years later, while still occupying in the house that Scott had built for him, which is the least successful of Scott’s five buildings at Exeter College. In the summer of 1858 work started on Scott's last building at Exeter. This was an extension from the rear of the Broad Street range towards the chapel. It was demolished in 1964, when new student rooms were built to the west and the quadrangle was enlarged to provide access to them. The loss of one of Scott's minor works is more than compensated by a new view of one of his best buildings.
University College library and chapel - Oxford
Scott's work at Exeter lasted until late in 1859, and in the following year he started work on another library for an Oxford college. By this time he had become deeply immersed in the Foreign Office controversy and the fact that the later building, for University College, compares unfavourably with the Exeter library, is possibly because it was designed when his main concern was to produce a design for the Foreign Office which would satisfy Lord Palmerston and yet remain true to his principles. In 1842 Sir Charles Barry had built the so-called ‘New Range’, in a Tudor Gothic style. It is a clear indication of Scott's prominence that immediately after Barry's death in May 1860, he was considered to be his natural successor for a Gothic building. Scott’s library at University College is larger and bulkier than his attractive little library at Exeter but there is similarity in its garden setting behind the old quadrangle of the college. A writer in 1861 described the library as ‘an elegant and beautifully-finished building’, but regretted that it could only be seen properly from inside the college grounds. The fine interior, with its shaped boarded ceiling, lost much of its elegance in 1937 when an additional floor was inserted and at the same time Scott’s entrance at the west end was altered. In 1862 he restored the college chapel where he rebuilt the east end in the same style as the library, including an elaborate traceried window, and provided a new roof, reredos and sedilia.
Christchurch Cathedral - Oxford
The cathedral restoration, which started in 1870, was Scott’s most important restoration in Oxford. Oxford Cathedral is, in fact, a tiny building which is almost engulphed by the majestic buildings of Christ Church College. It was Scott's smallest cathedral and its modesty seems more appropriate to its other function as the chapel of the college. The Dean of the cathedral is also the head of the college, while the Bishop of Oxford has always been a rather remote figure with his palace eventually at Cuddesdon, some five miles away. However, Scott is credited with having brought about a general recognition of the quality of the architecture of the little cathedral.
In February 1847 The Ecclesiologist
published a damning critique of the state and use of the building. There was ‘never a sermon preached nor a Communion offered for the benefit of the people of the diocese’. The ‘episcopal throne was meanness itself’ and the author was particularly incensed that the upper part of the south transept had been walled-off for the ‘unworthy purpose’ of providing a dwelling-house for the verger. Thereafter, interest in the building seems to have grown and to such an extent that in 1850 Professor Willis of Cambridge visited Oxford and presented a report to the Archaeological Institute on his findings. In the summer of 1855 Oxford Cathedral had a new dean, with the appointment by Palmerston of the Headmaster of Westminster School, Henry George Liddell (1811-1898). Liddell was a great reformer and one of the reasons that he left Westminster was that he was frustrated in his plans to either move or expand the school. While there he must have encountered Scott, particularly after Scott's ‘little disturbance’ with his school boys at the entrance to the Chapter House. He was, however, a Christ Church man, having been a student and tutor at the college. Today his particular claim to fame stems from his daughter, for whom another don, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, wrote Alice in Wonderland
under the pseudonym of Lewis Carroll.
Liddell was intent on making the church less of a college chapel and more of a cathedral. He abolished the daily college prayers and made the bishop a welcome visitor. In the year after his installation, John Billing (1816-1863) was commissioned to restore the interior of the cathedral. He removed the galleries and tall pews, repaired the stonework on the Norman piers and installed central heating. He died in 1863 before he could start the next stage of his restoration.
Scott's numerous visits to Oxford meant that not only was he well-known there, but he had had many opportunities to study the old building. He was also known to the bishop, Samuel Wilberforce, since their Aylesbury brush twenty years earlier and he had come to regard Scott as a ‘safe’ architect. In 1869 Scott’s son Alwyne had entered Christ Church as a Commoner to study Civil Law and in 1872 Dukinfield was also admitted to the college. So with contacts in both the cathedral and the college, it was perhaps inevitable that the Dean and Chapter would turn to the now famous Scott to complete the restoration.
In June 1869 he produced his report on the cathedral. As usual, this is based on a meticulous examination of the old building. Scott's approach is generally objective and it is only when he comes to describe what he calls the ‘mutilations or ill-judged alterations of the late periods’ that his feelings emerge. Wolsey's shortening of the nave is, of course, ‘unfortunate’, the wholesale alteration of Decorated and Perpendicular windows to suit the Flemish glass is ‘much to be deplored’, while other windows were ‘impoverished’ of their tracery at about the same time. Scott concluded his report with a reassurance to his clients of his conservative approach to restoration:
As any attempt to restore the original design, pure and simple, would obviously involve the destruction of parts which no one would for a moment hear of losing, it seems to follow that where such restoration would, in minor cases, cause the loss of parts, which though of dubious merit, still belong to the history of the building during the continuance of our national styles of architecture, such restorations should not be attempted without serious consideration.
This is an astonishing statement and, in view of what he was intending to do to the east end of the cathedral, it is difficult not to charge Scott with bad faith.
He noted that the east end had had ‘a large circular window, with other windows below it’, but these were removed during the fourteenth century ‘and a large Decorated window of five lights substituted’. This was reduced to a three light window in the seventeenth century, presumably to accommodate the Flemish glass, but in 1696 a new east window, designed by Sir James Thornhill, was presented to the cathedral. This survived until 1846 when Henri Gerente was commissioned to install a new window ‘of a most lurid and garish description’ to mark the three hundreth anniversary of the founding of the college. After Gerente’s death in 1849, the work was taken over by his brother, Alfred, and it was eventually fitted into the ‘debased’ Decorated tracery of the seventeenth century window in 1854.
In spite of his reassurances, Scott decided that the major part of his restoration would be to return the east end of the cathedral to what he was sure was its original form. He may have regretted the disappearance of an important work by his friends the Gerente brothers, but the debased window had to go. Work started on his restoration in 1870. The builders were J. R. Symm of St. Giles, Oxford, who had served him so well on Exeter Chapel. But Scott could not resist the temptation to indulge in another architectural jigsaw to discover the original east end. Following, according to The Architect
, ‘undoubted evidence of the original design’, he placed a great wheel-window above an arcaded passage at triforium level with two Norman-style windows below. Scott's friend, John Henry Parker, was so convinced of the integrity of Scott's findings that he used this wheel-window as an example of a round Norman window in his 1881 edition of Rickman's Attempt
. In reality, it is a replica of the Norman east window of Patrixbourne Church, which Scott had restored in 1857.
Scott also opened up and restored two Norman windows on either side of the sanctuary. He restored most of the mullions and tracery that had been removed to take the Flemish glass, removed seventeenth century screens in the north transept and rebuilt the upper part of the south choir aisle wall. At the end of the south transept he evicted the verger from his three-storied accommodation, removed the wall that separated him from the church and continued the transept ceiling as far as the southern end of the transept. Below this he provided a new vaulted vestry at triforium level with openings into the church. He then removed the organ from the transept, where it had been placed by Billing, into the west end of the nave and so opened up the view into the transept.
Cracks were discovered in the central tower, because, so it was said, of the strain of its great peal of eleven bells. This was the ideal excuse for Scott to remove the bells and their ringing chamber and to open up the inside of the tower to reveal its lantern lit by two levels of Norman arcades. Scott then built a timber structure on the roof of the great staircase in the south-east corner of the Great Quadrangle, into which the bells were transferred. This structure was ridiculed by Dodgson as ‘a tintinnabulatory tea-chest’, and in 1873 the College decided to build a proper tower to contain the bells and invited several architects to submit designs. Scott, perhaps out of favour because of the unfortunate ‘tea-chest’, was no longer the automatic choice of the college but it hoped that he would not ‘object to be included’ on a list along with other architects. Bodley, Jackson, Deane and Champneys were among those who eventually agreed to submit designs. Bodley's design was for a squat keep-like structure surmounted by a huge wooden lantern, Jackson’s was a 170 feet tall tower but Scott, typically, sent in five designs. These were for low towers as he was anxious not to produce anything that would compete with the nearby cathedral tower. All his towers were rejected in favour of Bodley's great keep. This was eventually built between 1876 and 1879 without its lantern.
Scott's most successful improvement to the cathedral was to give it a proper western approach from the Great Quadrangle. Before it had only been possible to enter the cathedral by going through the staircase hall of the college and then through the cloisters. Scott extended the nave one bay westwards and made a new entrance by cutting through two of the canons' houses. Compared with his drastic re-shaping of the east end, this part of Scott's work is remarkably self-effacing. So much so that The Architect
felt that the entrance could have been more imposing if he had not made an effort to preserve the run of blind arcading around the quadrangle. By October 1872 The Architect
was able to report that the fitting-out of the cathedral was nearing completion. A new black and white pavement was laid in the choir in 1871, with representations of the four cardinal virtues in the central aisle. These are said to be of Maltese workmanship and copied from the church of the Knights of St. John at Malta, but the technique of filling incised white marble with black cement appears to be the same as that which Scott was then using for his designs in the choir of Gloucester Cathedral. Billings' woodwork was ejected from the choir and Scott provided new seating following the usual chapel arrangement of inward facing benches, but most unusually extending this arrangement into the nave. At the back of the choir stalls is an extensive run of ironwork by Skidmore. The work was completed in 1872 at a total cost of £21,000. Most of this had come from college funds but there were appeals to former and present college members. Queen Victoria and the Prince of Wales each gave £100.
Memorial bishop's throne, Christchurch Cathedral - Oxford
On 17 July 1873 Samuel Wilberforce fell from his horse and was killed. He had been Bishop of Oxford for twenty-four years but in December 1869, he was made Bishop of Winchester. At Oxford it was decided to commemorate Wilberforce with a new bishop's throne at the east end of the choir of Christchurch Cathedral and Scott was commissioned to design it. At first he designed it with a solid dome canopy supported by four columns with a standing figure in a recess in the back panel but when it was erected, it had a bust of the bishop in the recess and an openwork dome. It was made by Farmer and Brindley and completed in 1877 at a cost £1,000. It survived until about 1955 when the canopy was replaced by a feeble affair by Sebastian Comper.
Merton College Library and Hall - Oxford
While Scott was reporting on the cathedral in 1869, he was also examining the library of nearby Merton College and in the following year carried out a restoration of what Jackson calls this ‘most enchanting’ of college libraries. Unlike most other libraries, it is not a free-standing building but the upper floors of the south and west ranges of the Mob Quadrangle, which were built between 1371 and 1378. Its charm comes from its refitting in the early seventeenth century, which remains today in an apparently unaltered state. What Scott did to the library is not clear, but what he did to the hall of Merton is only too obvious.
The hall of Merton College was originally built in the second half on the thirteenth century, which makes it the oldest college hall in Oxford but it was radically transformed in the 1790's by Wyatt into his own version of Gothic architecture. Scott surveyed the hall in 1870 and 1871, and in February 1872 began to return it to something like its original state. Externally he provided new steps, wing walls and arches to the porch, restored the narrow windows adding transoms and provided a new high roof. Internally he enlarged the hall by removing some rooms at the west end and constructed a gallery in their place. He did away with Wyatt's plaster vaulting and replaced it with a spectacular open timber roof, which The Architect says, ‘cannot be surpassed by any of the college-halls in Oxford’. It has cusped main arches and arched wind braces, which are also cusped to give an intricate pattern to the ceiling, making it similar to the Guesten House at Worcester of 1326, which Scott would have seen before its removal in 1859. He restored the medieval seats under the windows, placed a screen under the gallery and lined the lower part of the walls with carved panelling which, as usual, was executed by Farmer and Brindley. The builder was George Booth of London, who, at the same time was carrying out an extensive restoration at Wirksworth Church in Derbyshire for Scott, and the Clerk of Works was Thomas Leigh. The hall was finished in 1873, and cost over £4,000.
New College Hall - Oxford
Scott restored and re-roofed New College Hall between 1862 and 1865, having submitted his plans in 1858. His new roof imitated the original. It cost £5830 and Franklin of Deddington was the contractor. He also restored and rehung the interior panelling and glazed windows.
Scott’s office ledgers show he received £46 in 1878 for a survey report and plans of the Divinity School and Proscholium, for the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, New College, although none of his work is evident here.
Holywell Building, New College - Oxford
The Warden and fellows of New College, apparently so liked the new roof that he had provided for their hall, that in October 1870, they appointed him the architect for a new set of rooms to be built to the north of the college. This was to be his largest new building in Oxford, after Exeter. This was their first major extension for 150 years and, as the old buildings abutted the city wall to the north, it was only possible to build outside the city wall on a strip of land between the wall and Holywell Street. This necessitated purchasing and demolishing some ‘charming’ seventeenth and eighteenth century houses in that street. It could have the purchase of these houses which delayed the start of the Holywell Building but Scott became seriously ill in October 1870. This may have contributed to the fact that it was not until January 1871 that he submitted his first proposals to the college. Most of the college buildings were built soon after its foundation in 1379, by William of Wykeham, with some additions in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Scott claimed that the character of his design was ‘generally in accordance with the date of the college’. In fact it is another High Victorian essay with Middle Pointed details, particularly the stair-turrets and square-headed windows to the rooms. He proposed a three-storey building, containing twenty sets of rooms, but two of the college fellows insisted on a fourth floor, adding eighteen sets, which Scott accommodated in half-attics with dormer windows. This change meant that his building was much bulkier than any other structure in the college and produced a great stone cliff overshadowing narrow Holywell Street with its little old houses.
Work did not start on site for this first phase until October 1872, with H. Roome as Scott's Clerk of Works. The builders were once again the reliable Jackson and Shaw of Earl Street, Westminster, who were working on both St. Pancras and the Home and Colonial Offices for Scott at the time. The estimated cost of the work was £20,000 and it is built from Milton stone. In an effort to economise, the college cut out much of the external ornament and aggravated the grimness of the Holywell Street facade by insisting that the pipes and drains should be placed on that side of the building. Strikes added four months to the building period and it was completed late in 1874, by which time the college had acquired another six old houses in Holywell Street and was able to build the western extension. It was carried out between 1875 and 1877, and included a five-storey tower containing a married tutor's house. This new provision aroused some comment as New College, in 1867, was one of the first colleges to allow its tutors to be married.
One fellow, Charles Mayo (1837-1877), had an extraordinary career. As well as being an Oxford don, he was an army surgeon, attached to the German army in 1870, the Dutch in Sumatra in 1873-4 and he was also something of an antiquarian. In May 1876 he wrote to the Warden of the college from Fiji, stating that:
the designer of the new buildings in Holywell, whoever he may be, has recorded there his utter incompetence to follow in the steps of the architect of New College. On one side you see genius, on the other the most trumpery office work.
Scott's concessions to the old buildings are certainly rather thin. He reproduced the ubiquitous battlements of the college and his tower has some resemblance to its other towers, but many of his details are derived from a period a hundred years earlier than that of William of Wykeham, whom Mayo assumed to be the architect of the college. It may have been the scale of the building in relation to the old college, more than anything else, which upset Mayo. But Scott was not responsible for the height of the building, its awkward site and the gauntness of its elevations, particularly towards Holywell Street. The building was extended eastwards in 1896 by Basil Champneys.
New College Chapel - Oxford
In 1871, before any work had started on the Holywell Building and while he was still in favour with the dons, Scott was commissioned by them to produce a preliminary design and estimates for restoring the college chapel. Again it fell to Scott to undo James Wyatt’s mock-Gothic misdeeds. Nothing happened, presumably because of lack of funds, until 1875 when a new fund-raising committee embarked on a more vigorous campaign. Scott submitted three alternative designs to the committee for the chapel roof and the dons selected, somewhat perversely, his least favourite, the hammer-beam roof. But it was not until 1877, the year before Scott's death, that he was finally instructed to proceed with the contract drawings. In March 1877, George Shaw, apparently now separated from his partner Charles Jackson, signed a contract to carry out the structural parts of the work, including the big new roof, and in the following July, Farmer and Brindley undertook to do all the carving for Scott. This included the reredos, sedilia and piscina in stone, and the woodwork of the stalls and organ screen, incorporating, where possible, the original misericords, stall-backs and canopies. Scott died in March 1878, while the chapel was still in its early stages and it was left to John Oldrid to deal with the awkward dons. The work was finished in 1880 and had cost £23,729, without the reredos.
The most spectacular feature of the chapel is the great reredos, which covers the whole of the eastern wall. It was plastered over by Wyatt but Scott designed the present structure and it was completed by Pearson between 1888 and 1891, with over fifty figures by Nathaniel Hitch (1846-1938). New College Chapel, as seen today, is not one of Scott's best efforts. The dons had acted against his advice over the roof, while John Oldrid, who knew how his father wanted to complete the work, was largely ignored, particularly when it came to applying colour to the fittings and the roof.
All Souls College Chapel - Oxford
Scott had considerably more success with the chapel of All Souls College. He seems to have had a good relationship with the members of the college and he lived long enough to see the work largely completed. Henry Clutton was already restoring the chapel when Scott was called in 1872. The roof was being re-slated, the exterior restored and the plaster was being scraped off the hammer-beam roof when a scaffolding pole accidently pierced the lath and plaster screen which covered the eastern wall of the chapel. By looking through the hole in the screen there was amazement at the beautiful medieval carved reredos which could now be seen. The removal of the screen was ‘soon accomplished’ and the senior fellow of the college, the Earl of Bathurst, offered to pay for the restoration of the reredos to its orginal form. Bathurst had employed Scott to design the tower and spire that he added to Scott's church at Watermoor, Cirencester, in 1852, and upon the discovery of the old reredos, Scott was immediately commissioned to take over the restoration of the chapel.
Scott produced designs to restore the sanctuary and re-pave the floor. In June 1873 Farmer and Brindley contracted to restore the stalls and execute the paving, and in October Edward Geflowski, of Camden Town, agreed to supply the new figures for the reredos. Geflowski had carried out the sumptuous carving in the interior of Watermoor Church, so his appearance at All Souls was probably due to Bathurst. At All Souls, Geflowski carved thirty-five large figures, including one of Bathurst, and eighty-four smaller figures. Henry Terry, of Lambeth, carried out the architectural sculpture and the reliable Symm executed the rest of the stonework. Thomas Leigh doubled up being Clerk of Works on Merton hall with All Souls. Bathurst contributed between £3,000 and £4,000 for the figures on the reredos, the total cost reaching £35,000, the total cost of the restoration of the chapel, which was completed in 1879, was £10,639.
At the end of his life Scott seems to have been re-invigorated with the All Souls challenge, and, according to The Builder, ‘entered into the work with that zeal and love for old examples that so eminently distinguished him’. Thanks to Bathurst's enormous generosity he was able to see the reredos largely completed before he died. All Souls was a minor triumph for Scott, but perhaps his view of Oxford was coloured by his treatment from the dons of Christ Church and New College. His knack of taking offence at the slightest snub, perhaps not even intended, is the recurring theme throughout his Recollections and may be the reason that they contain no mention of any of his numerous works at Oxford after Exeter College.
Radcliffe Infirmary Block - Oxford
Scott built the new block, south of the entrance court, with Charles Buckeridge between 1869-71.
Martyrs Memorial, St Giles - Oxford
Scott is rather coy, in his Recollections
about assigning the Martyrs' Monument at Oxford to the proper stage in his architectural development. This was a highly accomplished work for a twenty-eight year old architect but, perhaps by inferring that it happened during his conversion to the high-church ways of Ecclesiologists, he could, in some way, atone for the monument's purpose as a blatant protest against the high church Oxford Movement of the Tractarians.
The Martyrs Memorial was erected in Oxford to commemorate the three protestant bishops, Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley, who were burnt at the stake in Broad Street in 1555 and 1556. A group of low-church enthusiasts organised a rally in 1838 and set up a committee to provide the Memorial. A national appeal was launched, subscriptions were raised and in March 1840 a limited architectural competition was announced. The Memorial was to be a larger version of the Waltham Eleanor Cross and some houses and an inn were cleared away from the south end of St. Giles to provide a sufficiently prominent site for the memorial, although not actually in Broad Street. Scott wrote in 1864:
This was in 1840 and it seems strange that one so unknown in matters of taste should have been named on a select list for a work like this. I owed it I fancy to the kind influence of my friends Mr Stowe and Major Macdonald with two members of the Committee and to a third member, Dr. Macbride, having been a friend of my father & of my grandfather When I received the invitation I threw myself into the design with all the ardour I possessed. My early study, full 10 years earlier of the Eleanor crosses was a good preparation. I obtained every drawing of old crosses I could lay hand on and devoted my best endeavours to producing a design suited to the object. I succeeded.
William Stowe, a surgeon of Buckingham, with whom Scott's brother, John, became a partner in 1836, and Major Macdonald of the Royal Marines, Stowe’s brother-in-law, were also members of Scott's father's congregation and both contributed towards the reconstruction of Gawcott Church in 1826. It is not strange that these men were able to arrange for young Scott to be invited to enter the competition considering the importance of his family, particularly his grandfather, in the evangelical movement.
Scott's winning design was handled with an assurance stemming from an intimate knowledge of the Waltham Cross. It is significant that Scott went to Canterbury ‘to sketch carefully for the benefit of the monument the details of the noble tomb of Archbishop Peckham’. This was made in 1292, and according to John Newman/Pevsner, it is ‘one of the earliest pieces anywhere that can be called pure Dec[orated]’. In fact, Scott was nudging his memorial slightly further forward towards the late Middle Pointed, or early Decorated style, which was to be so favoured by Pugin and the Ecclesiologists. Above the second stage, the increase in height is achieved by attenuating the original elements and introducing an entirely new terminal feature incorporating tiny flying buttresses. The height of the whole tomb structure is seventy-three feet compared with the Waltham Cross which is just under fifty feet tall.
At his first meeting with the Committee, Scott suggested that a quarry on the Nottinghamshire-Derbyshire border could provide a stone for the memorial of the right colour and grain:
by visiting the district it might be possible to find a stone uniting these qualities; when Dr. Buckland snubbed me with great scorn saying that such a suggestion might have been made in years gone by when little was known of the geological productions of the country, but that now when every variety of stone was so well known, it was hopeless to look for new ones. I happened however though without scientific knowledge, to have nearly as practical an acquaintance with stone quarries as Dr. Buckland & did not see the force of the argument.
He then set off with Moffatt and discovered a disused quarry near Mansfield Woodhouse which ‘presented to me the very stone which my inspiration had pourtrayed! [sic]’. The Committee accepted the stone, although more expensive, but much to Scott's justifiable annoyance, gave the credit for its discovery to Buckland. William Buckland (1784-1856) was an amazingly contradictory character. As Professor of Mineralogy at Oxford, he had carried out important research into geology, but, he was also an eminent churchman, having been appointed a Canon of Christchurch Cathedral in 1825. Five years after this brush with Scott, he became Dean of Westminster where he was to have further dealing with Scott.
The foundation stone was laid in 1841. Scott recalled that ‘my anxiety about the carving for the Oxford memorial was most intense & though the result is not very high I do think that considering the time it was remarkable’. The carving was carried out by Mr Cox, who superintended the construction of the monument for Scott and later carried out other work for him. Canterbury Cathedral, of which the Dean, Richard Bagot, was also Bishop of Oxford, ‘presented three fine blocks of Caen Stone for the statues of the three bishops’, on the memorial. These were executed by another rising young star, Henry Weekes (1807-77), who had already achieved some fame for having made the first bust of Queen Victoria after her accession. He later carried out one of the sculpture groups on the Albert Memorial for Scott. The figures of the three bishops were placed in their niches in 1842 and the work was completed the following year, at a cost of £5000.
The Martyrs' Memorial is big and prominently sited in the centre of Oxford as a very public declaration against the High Church movement, and because of this assertiveness, was bound to bring prominence to its designers. According to Eastlake writing in 1872, it ‘was greatly admired and attracted much notice at the time of its erection. It is generally admitted to be a most creditable work for its date’. Scott and Moffatt were beginning to be recognised as architects of national importance, with the innovative nature of their design work coming from Scott himself.
St Mary Magdalene's - Oxford
Following the success of the Martyrs' Memorial at Oxford, Scott and Moffatt were commissioned, in 1842, to provide a new north aisle to the chancel of St. Mary Magdalene to give the Memorial an appropriate background, at the cost of £8000. This is a very sophisticated design in late thirteenth century style to match the Memorial, with alternating geometric and flowing tracery to the windows. The Norman chancel arch was removed and replaced by Perpendicular style piers, with two stained glass windows inserted. Pevsner claims that it has considerable historical importance, as ‘the earliest piece of archaeologically respectful Gothic at Oxford. It proves that Scott was in this not simply Pugin's successor but that he had reached the same standards, concurrently with, and independently of, Pugin’.
St Mary the Virgin, High Street - Oxford
Between 1861 and 1862 Scott refitted and repaired the university church of St Mary including refacing the exterior, renewing the tracery and adding parapets to the nave and aisles. In 1856 he had added new geometrical tracery to the north window of the tower and he was also consulted about the south wall by the vicar, Burgon, in 1863. He also seems to have restored the porch and spire later in 1864-5.
St Mary Magdalene's - Stoke Talmage
This church was restored by Scott in 1860 at a cost of £1700. Initially the vicar had wanted to build a new church but this had proved potentially too expensive. Scott said he would make the existing church more ‘church-like’ and the funds were used for the restoration instead. He added a new north aisle, a vestry, south porch and buttresses. Tracery was added to match existing examples and new tiles laid on the floor. The interior was redecorated and ceiling removed. There were new roofs throughout with a new piscina on the north side of the chancel, with a new pulpit, font and stalls.