St James's - Audley
This church was restored and partially rebuilt by Scott in around 1846-7, including the clerestory, the west door into the tower and Decorated chancel east window. It appears that tiles were donated by the local firm of Minton for Scott’s restoration. The builder, Samuel Faram, also worked on the ground plan of the church in 1849-50 and restoration continued until 1856, although not necessarily under the direct superintendence of Scott.
St Margaret's - Betley
Scott and Moffatt restored this church between 1839-43. Their work included building two new side aisles and the rearrangement of seating plus general repairs, particularly of the exterior.
St Bartholomew's bellcote - Blurton
Scott designed a bellcote over the western end of the nave of this church, which was added in 1846.
St Michael's - Brereton
Scott enlarged and restored this church in 1876–8, for the Rev. Edward Samson, who contributed £1000 towards the cost. He extended the transepts eastwards forming north and south aisles, each of three bays. He also formed the present chancel by raising the floor level at the east end of the former nave and surrounding it with low stone screens. The font, on a base of coloured marble, is inscribed to the memory of George Augustus Selwyn, Bishop of Lichfield (d. 1878).
Union Workhouse, Horninglow Street - Burton-on-Trent
This workhouse was built in 1837-9 to a Scott and Moffatt standard plan, at a cost of £5400, to house 300 inmates. It had a three storey main accommodation block. The site was sold in 1891 and the buildings demolished, the area used for storage by a brewery.
St Edward's - Cheddleton
Scott carried out a survey of this church in 1855 with a view to restoration. This was carried out by his son George Gilbert in 1863-4 with further restoration in 1875-8. However, Scott may have drawn up a further plan in 1864-70, for general repairs and reseating, although he may not have directly supervised the work which had been passed onto his son.
St Mary's - Enville
This church was restored and enlarged by Scott, for the Right Honourable Earl of Stafford and Warmington, between 1872-5. This consisted of the rebuilding of the chancel, including the organ room in Decorated style at the east end, the insertion of new geometrical aisle windows on both sides, the erection of new porches and the rebuilding of the tower which was given a crown of pinnacles and a perforated parapet like Taunton.
St Chad's - Freehay
This was in a group of three churches Scott built around Stoke-on-Trent and is the least distinguished. Lying about seven miles east of Stoke, the church was started in 1842, in conjunction with Moffatt, and consecrated in 1846, seating 250. Here Scott reverted to the lancet style of the Commissioners' churches, with no chancel, but only a nave and bellcote and a triplet lancet window at the east end.
St Mary's - Hales
Scott designed and built this church from pink sandstone ashlar, in Middle Pointed style. It consists of a west tower, nave and chancel and has an ashlar faced interior.
Holy Trinity - Hartshill
Scott's friendship with the Poor Law Commissioner Thomas Stevens, whom he had met when they were working on Lichfield and Belper workhouses and was now the curate of Keele in Staffordshire, seems instrumental for gaining work in this geographical area.
It was probably the Stevens' connection that led to his appointment by Herbert Minton, the proprietor of the firm of porcelain and pottery manufacturers, to build a new church at Stoke-on-Trent, in Staffordshire. Drawings were worked up in 1840, the contract was let in 1841 and the building completed during the following year in conjunction with Moffatt. Holy Trinity, Hartshill Road, is a large church with inevitably, much-glazed tiling, some Minton designs from his earliest Pattern Book but the architectural style is the so-called Middle Pointed, or late Early English, with geometric tracery, which was to become Scott's favourite style as well as that of Pugin and the Ecclesiologists. The importance to Scott of this building was, he claimed, ‘the first to which I put a regular chancel, but in some respects, hardly an advance on the others’. It earned early approbation in the first volume of The Ecclesiologist which, in 1842, described it as ‘magnificent’.
Holy Trinity Vicarage - Hartshill
Scott, as he was to do on several later occasions, also designed a parsonage in the same location as the church, also paid for by Minton, the parsonage now totally altered.
Holy Trinity School - Hartshill
Scott, as he was to do on several later occasions, also designed a school in the same location as the church and vicarage, also paid for by Minton.
Holy Trinity restoration - Hartshill
The church was burnt out by fire in 1872 and restored by Scott along similar lines to his original building, although he added an apsidal end to the chancel and a south chapel, the chancel tilework also being replaced.
St Peter's - Hixon
Scott built this church between 1845-8, in Middle Pointed style, consisting of a nave, long chancel and north tower with a broach spire.
Holy Cross - Ilam
Scott undertook a major restoration at this church in 1855-6. This included inserting lancet windows into the east wall, adding a north arcade and chancel arch, as well as a saddleback top to the tower. He also provided new fittings including an alabaster reredos with marble shafts, rood screen, and screen on the south side of chancel with elaborate casting and colour made by Skidmore of Coventry. He provided brass lighting standards and the chancel stalls as well.
Model Estate Village - Ilam
The setting of Ilam in the Peak District reminded the estate owner Jesse Watts Russell of the Swiss Alps. As an extention of the picturesque ideal, he commissioned Scott to design an Alpine-style or ‘cottage ornee’ model estate village scheme for Ilam, with new houses replacing the older vernacular buildings in the centre of the village beside the park. The scheme was designed in around 1839. A group of Scott-designed cottage-style houses was constructed in around 1840 with Gate Lodge constructed at around the same time. Features include gables, tall ornate chimneys, tile hanging, mullioned and transomed windows and a decorative diamond-shaped timber lattice-work to the gables, uniting the scheme but the buildings remaining individually different. Scott was probably also consulted over the design of the Ilam Cross in the early 1840s, also based on an Eleanor Cross, and concurrent with his design for the Martyrs Memorial in Oxford.
Ilam School and School House - Ilam
A new school was designed and built in 1854 with a school house. The roofs feature bands of fish scale red tiles interspersed with plain blue ones, which match the church.
St Thomas - Kidsgrove
Scott enlarged the church here by adding a chancel, with geometric tracery on the chancel windows, in 1853.
St Peter's - Kinver
In 1878, Scott seems to have consulted about and planned the restoration of this church for the Rev. Hodgson, as shown by account entries in his office ledger (p. 58). The restoration was carried out by his son John Oldrid in 1884-5, after his death.
Lichfield Cathedral - Lichfield
Lichfield is the cathedral of Staffordshire where Scott had particularly strong connections arising from his workhouses, his restoration of St. Mary's Stafford and his churches around Stoke-on-Trent. Many of the clergy and patrons in the area knew him well from that time and he was now able to return among them as the acknowledged leading restorer of the day. He claims that at Lichfield, ‘I here succeeded, rather against my will Mr Sydney Smirke who had restored the South aisle of the nave and really had begun the Choir’. Smirke had been appointed in 1842 and his proposals for the choir included a design for a new reredos, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in the summer of 1857. The Ecclesiologist
condemned his efforts as ‘bad Perpendicular’, and lacking in beauty and convenience.
Both Scott and Smirke were members of the restoration committee, but it also included ‘my friend Ferrey’ and Beresford Hope. As the likely author of the criticism of Smirke's reredos, Hope would have regarded Scott as a decided improvement over Smirke. But it was probably Ferrey who was Scott's strongest supporter. Even before his appointment by the committee Scott had made a large drawing showing his ideas for re-arranging the choir at Lichfield, which was to have been the next stage in Smirke's programme. The committee preferred Scott's proposals and, in October 1857, he took over the restoration of the cathedral from Smirke. Amazingly Smirke seems to have borne little animosity towards Scott for his dismissal. Smirke, the same as many who had personal dealings with Scott, liked and respected him.
Various repairs and alterations were carried out in the eighteenth century, including work by James Wyatt between 1788 and 1793, and Scott's restoration was largely confined to the interior of the cathedral. Wyatt had installed a hideous glass screen and organ blocking off the nave from the choir. Scott removed this obstruction and replaced it with another fine metal choir screen which was made by Skidmore in 1859. It incorporates figures by Philip and it is perhaps even more delicate than the Hereford screen. Scott ‘brought back the altar from the East end of the Lady chapel to its old place & erected behind it a sub reredos’. His new choir stalls and bishop's throne were made by William Evans of Ellaston who had previously restored Stafford Church for Scott and, as George Eliot's cousin, is thought to have been her model for the fictional Adam Bede. He also provided a new altar with seven Gothic niches, iron parcloses behind the choir stalls by Skidmore, a nave pulpit, gas chandelier in a lantern by Skidmore and a new font with angelic faces and figures of saints. He removed the whitewash from the nave as well as restoring the Chapter House and Lady Chapel. The nave vaulting was restored and angel brackets to the choir vaulting renewed, the statues by Farmer and Brindley. The pavement in the choir was renewed in stone with inlaid medallions. The cathedral was reopened on Tuesday 22 October 1861.
In both accounts in the Recollections
about Lichfield, Scott mentions the encounter with Willis who visited the cathedral in 1861 in connection with a paper that he published on Lichfield in that year. Scott said:
A wretched foreman of masons who accompanied Professor Willis in his investigations & with him discovered in the triforium of the transept the setting out of the Early English triforium arcades - deliberately destroyed them without any communication with me to my intense disgust.
Scott’s knowledge of the marks was based entirely on Willis’s complaint that the stones had been destroyed, but he said:
I must say I think the Professor was exceedingly blameable in entrusting such discovered evidence to the sole guardianship of an ignorant mason and in making no communication whatever to me as the architect of the cathedral.
Poor Scott’s dignity had been badly hurt. This minor affront must have preyed on his mind and developed into a major issue when he was writing his Recollections
sixteen years later. Willis had probably touched a raw nerve, as in reality, it was impossible for Scott with his hectic life-style to visit Lichfield, or for that matter any other job, as much as he should. Scott must have realised his own guilt in the affair, but to attack and emphasise his own importance over the 'ignorant mason', who presumably only thought that he was doing his job, seems inexcusable.
In the year after Bickersteth became Dean, Scott must again have been even more delighted when his youngest brother, Melville Horne Scott (1827-98), was made a Prebendary of Lichfield, with a stall in the cathedral. In 1846 Melville had been admitted to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge as a Pensioner, the year that his older brother John was graduating from the college. Immediately after he graduated in 1850 he was ordained by the Bishop of Lichfield and thereafter spent the rest of his life within the diocese of Lichfield. He became Vicar of Ockbrook, near Derby, and in 1872 was appointed to St. Andrew's, Derby, which his brother had designed in 1866. He remained there until 1878 when he became Vicar of St. Mary’s Lichfield. He died in 1898 and was buried in the cathedral. While his office could handle much of the ever-increasing work-load, the cathedrals and the Foreign Office were Scott's particular concerns. The Dean and Chapter of Lichfield were fortunate in involving him at a time when the Foreign Office scheme seems to have died, but other cathedral commissions followed hard behind Lichfield and those responsible for these buildings often had to be content with a survey and report and to wait for some time before Scott could turn his full attention to their particular problems. The Foreign Office was in fact far from dead.
West Window and Monument, Lichfield Cathedral - Lichfield
In 1866 Scott was instructed to design a new west window for the cathedral. The design was approved in 1867, and in 1869 the ungainly seventeenth century tracery was ‘replaced with a window more in character (possibly a little too late in detail)’. Scott's other contributions to the cathedral included memorials for clergymen of his time. The first of these was for Grimthorpe's father-in-law, John Lonsdale (1788-1867), who was Bishop of Lichfield from 1843 until his death. His monument, in the north choir aisle, has an effigy by George Frederick Watts in a Gothic setting by Scott, dating from 1867.
West Front and Monument, Lichfield Cathedral - Lichfield
In 1864 he had proposed that the whole of the west front should have its plaster removed and restored to its original condition, but clearly this was to be an expensive task. Nothing was done until Ewan Christian, in a report in 1872, reinforced Scott's proposal and in 1875 Scott’s ‘valued friend and patron’, Edward Bickersteth, who had been Vicar of Aylesbury, was appointed Dean of Lichfield. Scott hoped, in February 1877, that under Bickersteth the west front, ‘the great gem of the Cathedral now set in paste will be reset in genuine stone’. It was no doubt through Bickersteth’s influence and Christian’s recommendations that, a few months later Scott was able to put in hand the work that he had proposed some thirteen years before. Thompson of Peterborough started work on the front in May 1877, with Irvine as the Clerk of Works. John Oldrid took over as cathedral architect after his father's death and restored the west front to Scott's design. It was finally dedicated in May 1884, having cost the massive sum of £40,000, with figures carved by various sculptors, including Mary Grant (1831-1908). The Dean and Chapter proudly proclaimed that Scott's posthumous design was ‘perhaps the most beautiful and elaborate West Front to be seen in this country’. Scott's other contributions to the cathedral included memorials for clergymen of his time.
His third memorial at Lichfield was to the Precentor Henry Moore of whom Scott says, ‘A grander man I never knew’. He died in 1876 and his memorial was placed in the south choir aisle, with another white effigy by Armstead. It was not completed until 1879, after Scott himself had died.
Monument to Henry Howard, Lichfield Cathedral - Lichfield
Scott's other contributions to the cathedral included memorials for clergymen of his time. In 1868, the Dean, Henry Edward Howard (1795-1868) died. He had been Dean since November 1833 and his monument was erected in the south choir aisle in 1872. This is a white recumbent figure holding a Bible, by Armstead, in a Gothic setting by Scott.
Union Workhouse, Trent Valley Road - Lichfield
This workhouse was built to a Scott and Moffatt plan, approved in 1837, in Tudor Gothic style. It was built in red brick, made from clay dug out of the foundations, with a black diaper pattern. It was symmetrical with a battlemented gatehouse and a Georgian cupola. It was to hold 200 inmates and built at a cost £2939, the builder William Sissons of Hull. It was completed by 1841.
St Giles's - Newcastle-under-Lyme
Scott largely rebuilt this church in 1873-6, in Middle Pointed, late thirteenth century, style, the only part of the old church remaining being the thirteenth century tower. The interior is faced with Bath stone in contrast to the darker Blythe Marsh stone also used. He also provided a pulpit, font and altar piece.
Union Workhouse, Keele Road - Newcastle-under-Lyme
Scott and Moffatt were in competition with Bolton and Palmer for this workhouse but Moffatt met the Commissioner, Stevens, in 1838 and their design was accepted. Mr Shaw’s tender was also accepted and the building was reduced in size so as not to exceed the £3700 agreed as costs, although this later rose to £6000. It was to house 350 paupers and was completed in 1839. It seems to have been similar in style to Lichfield but was demolished in 1938, with the abolition of the workhouse system.
All Saints - Okeover
This church was restored by Scott in 1856-8 and included new fittings and a re-roofing. The rood screen is dated 1855 and is by Scott, and the stalls also have elaborate carving.
St Chad's - Pattingham
From 1856 Scott restored this church including the chancel, nave and south aisle, at the expense of the Earl of Dartmouth, the vicar and the parishioners. The north outer aisle and the vestry were built and the south porch added, work completed and the church reopened in 1865. In 1871 the spire was built to Scott's design. The builders were Higham of Wolverhampton.
St Thomas's, Rothwell Street - Penkhull
This church was built by Scott and Moffatt for the Rev. Thomas Webb Minton, at his expense, between 1842-3. It is in Mid-Pointed style with a west tower with a broach spire, nave, transepts and a short chancel. In 1845, Herbert Minton, the tile manufacturer, donated an ornate tile pavement to the church where his nephew Samuel was the incumbent. He also paid off the debt of £400-500 which his nephew
had incurred during the building of the church.
St Chad's - Stafford
Scott restored this church in 1874-5, building on earlier restorations in 1854-5 paid for by Thomas Salt and carried out by Henry Ward, a Stafford architect. When Salt died, it was decided to restore the nave as a memorial to him and Scott was called in. He opened up the nave arcade on the south side, reconstructed the south aisle, added a vestry and the built the present west front. The statue of St. Chad in the gable over the west window was Scott's own gift to the church, possibly a personal tribute to Thomas Salt, whom he had known during his restoration of St Mary’s, Stafford.
St Mary's - Stafford
Scott's major church restorations really started with St. Mary's, Stafford. His friend, Thomas Stevens, wrote to Scott in 1840 saying that ‘Mr. Coldwell, Rector of Stafford was most anxious to restore his Church if only he could get funds’. Stevens suggested to Scott that he should offer to make a survey and to write a report so that Coldwell could then use these as the basis for an appeal for funds. This became the usual procedure for his church restorations but this often resulted in a considerable lapse in time between Scott's report and reaching the appeal target, enabling the work to commence.
Coldwell launched an appeal based on Scott's recommendations, but it ‘was faintly responded to’, and in 1842, just before Stevens left his post as Assistant Poor Law Commissioner in Staffordshire, he and Scott found Coldwell ‘in despair’ of ever carrying out the work. Nevertheless Jesse Watts Russell of Ilam Hall would provide £5000, if £3000 could be raised by public appeal. This apparently was very quickly achieved as Scott produced the necessary drawings and tender documents for a contract to be made with William Evans on 30 May 1842. However, Reverend Louis Petit, who had just completed a book entitled Remarks on Church Architecture which he had illustrated with his own sketches, and was related by marriage to the principal parishioner and probably donor, Thomas Salt, of the bankers, Stevenson Salt and Sons of Lombard Street in the City of London, raised concerns about the plans. Scott recalled that ‘Mr. Petit raised some considerable objections to certain parts of my provisional restorations on the ground of their not being sufficiently conservative, and wrote a very important and talented letter on the subject’. Petit warned that an architect ‘ought to hesitate long, before he pronounces to be vile and worthless the works of those who lived [in an age] on the decline’. However, Scott argued that a church was erected for the glory of God and the use of Man and referred the problem to the Cambridge Camden Society and the Oxford Architectural Society. They both supported his proposals. The result was that St. Mary's lost its Perpendicular south transept clerestory and the large south transept window, which was replaced by a triplet of lancets based on a single window in the west wall. He also removed the clerestory in the chancel, rebuilt the crossing arches and provided a new south porch, but he did little to alter the appearance of the nave. He states that, ‘The heavy practical work was the central tower whose four piers had become so crushed that they had to be nearly rebuilt a dangerous work which it has since been my frequent lot to repeat & a most unenviable lot it is!’ The galleries and pulpit were removed from the west end and new fittings provided which Scott calls, ‘…not very successful’. There is also a lancet in the north-west wall designed by A. W. N. Pugin. Scott and Moffat’s clerk of works was firstly Edwin Gwilt and then Mortimer. Work was completed in 1845.
St Mary's School - Stafford
Scott built this school in 1856.
St Mary's Castlechurch, Newport Road - Stafford
Whilst the restoration of St Mary’s was still in progress, in 1844 Scott and Moffatt started on alterations and additions to St. Mary's Castlechurch. Their tidying-up was so extensive that Pevsner describes the church as their design. They rebuilt the chancel and the north wall of the nave and added a north vestry and a porch. The old fittings were removed and it was reseated, increasing capacity by forty-two. There is Minton tiling in the nave and chancel. It was completed in 1846.
St Mary's Castlechurch, design for north aisle - Stafford
Scott designed the north aisle of this church in around 1851 but this was not executed until 1898 by his son John Oldrid. At the same time he designed a font cover but, again, this was not used until taken up by John Oldrid in 1898.
All Saints - Standon
In 1846-7, Scott restored the chancel of this church in thirteenth century style and altered the windows. He also added a vestry and rebuilt the south aisle.
Holy Evangelist's Church, Belgrave Road, Longton - Stoke-on-Trent
This church was built by Scott in 1846-7, at the expense of the Duke of Sutherland, in Middle Pointed style with one light windows. It has a nave, chancel, porch and bellcote, originally faced with Minton tiles. Minton donated both cement and tiles for the interior of the church which decorate the floor.
Resurrection Church, Belgrave Road, Longton - Stoke-on-Trent
The earliest building which shows the most obvious effect of Scott’s Italian visit is the tiny Resurrection Church which he built in 1853 at Longton, in the industrial outskirts of Stoke-on-Trent, again for the Duke of Sutherland. This was built of diapered red brickwork with much constructive polychromy, particularly the alternating coloured brick arches externally, and red and yellow bands internally. Tiles for the altar space and reredos were donated by Herbert Minton in 1853.
Resurrection Church enlargement - Stoke-on-Trent
Scott further enlarged the church in 1863-4, adding an aisle.
St Editha's - Tamworth
Scott was in charge of the restoration at this church during the early 1850s, succeeding his friend Benjamin Ferry and preceding William Butterfield, who took over in 1871. His work included designing a font in 1854, which incorporated the stem of another font and Perpendicular fragments, and a reredos in 1852, with statues by Birnie Philip in 1852.
Union Workhouse - Uttoxeter
In 1838, Scott met Stevens, his friend and the Poor Law Commissioner, at Uttoxeter, probably in connection with the erection of the workhouse. Scott and Moffatt were awarded the contract later that year for one of their standard plans and the builders, William Sissons of Hull and George Myers and Richard Wilson of Hull, were appointed. The cost would be £3900, it would accommodate 200 inmates and was completed by 1840. It had an entrance range with the main block to the rear but was demolished in the early twentieth century.
St John's - Wall
By 1842, Scott and Moffatt were becoming increasingly recognised as church architects in different parts of England. It was in Staffordshire and the adjacent counties that Scott and Moffatt were able to obtain their next phase of churches, presumably through Scott's friendship with the Poor Law Commissioner Thomas Stevens, whom he had met when they were working on Lichfield and Belper workhouses and was now the curate of Keele in Staffordshire. In 1839, Scott and Moffatt invited tenders for a new church at Wall, which is only three miles from Steven's headquarters at Lichfield, but it was some time before it was built. Unlike the other churches, St. John's, Wall, is vaguely Perpendicular in style. Perhaps this was an attempt to produce something different from the ubiquitous Commissioners' style and it may have been this work and Stevens’s High Church views which started Scott’s climb out of the abyss. It is built from dark stone, is aisle-less, has a short chancel and a thin western steeple. Wall Church was finally consecrated in 1843.
St Andrew's - Weston
Scott restored and enlarged this church in 1860, principally adding the north aisle. The south aisle was added by Butterfield in 1872.
St Andrew's Vicarage, Abbeylands - Weston
This was the former vicarage, opposite St Andrew’s Church, built by Scott in 1858 in Jacobean style, with a symmetrical Jacobean front and asymmetrical entrance side with oriel window. It has gables and some Gothic details. It has now been converted to residential flats.
St Mary the Virgin - Aldridge
Scott and Moffatt carried out a rebuilding and restoration here in 1841, including a new south aisle and a general reseating. Mr G. David was surveyor and clerk of works.