All Saints - Arksey
Scott restored this church in 1868-70 for Lord of the Manor, Sir William Cooke. He renewed glass, restored the chancel, chancel aisles and transepts, and re-seated the church. He renewed the pews using existing seventeenth century wood and a timber screen using medieval wooden screen remains.
St Peter's - Arthington
In 1864, Scott built this church in rock-faced sandstone, in the Gothic style, seating 307 people, with a western tower and a spire containing one bell. The building work was financed by William Sheepshanks esq. of Arthington Hall, with Thomas Sheepshanks becoming the first vicar. It is now a Coptic Church.
Arthington Hall - Arthington
Scott carried out drawings to extend Arthington Hall for William Sheepshanks, between 1845-62, but this was not carried out, the existing Victorian extension by Alfred Waterhouse.
St John the Evangelist's - Bilton
Scott completed this church between 1855-7. The total cost of £10000 was met by William Sheepshanks, with his son Thomas installed as the first vicar. It has Early English details with a west tower and stained glass in the eastern windows by Crace.
Bilton Rectory - Bilton
Contemporary to St John the Evangelist's church, Scott also built the rectory, beside the church from stone, with a stable block at the rear. It is now a public library.
St Helen's - Bilton-in-Ainsty
In 1868-70, Scott carried out a restoration at this church with repairs to the walls and roofs and a reseating. It cost £1,300, which was raised by voluntary contributions. The former brick buttresses were replaced by stone and the gable restored. An open timbered roof took the place of the old one and the old pews were replaced.
St John the Evangelist's - Cadeby
Scott designed and built this church for Sir Joseph Copley in 1854-6. It has a ‘gawky’ (Pevsner) bellcote, lancet windows and geometric east window, with steep roofs. The interior has carving by Philip. It is now a redundant church.
St Wilfred's - Cantley
From 1874, during the incumbency of William Eardley, Scott carried out a restoration at this church, adding a north aisle. There are signs on the east wall of the West Tower, of a higher pitched roof to the nave and there are unconfirmed reports that the church had a thatched roof which was replaced by the present roof of Yorkshire stone slabs at this time. Restoration work continued after Scott’s death, the church re-opening in 1886.
All Saints - Cawood
Scott worked on a report for the restoration of the church and also drawings for the restoration, three drawings inscribed by Grimthorpe, in around 1874. No work was carried out until after his death in 1887.
St George's - Doncaster
If Scott found Henry Cole pushy and assertive, he was nothing, compared with an amazing polymath, whom he first refers to as Mr. E. B. Denison, later as Sir Edmund Beckett, and today is known as Lord Grimthorpe (1816-1905). On his travels between Boston and Hull, Scott had become familiar with the sight of the tall tower of St. George's Church, Doncaster, dominating the flat landscape for miles around, and he must have been shocked to hear that the whole church had been completely destroyed by fire on 28 February 1853.
Doncaster was undergoing the transformation from a market town to an industrial centre, largely due to the establishment of the huge locomotive works of the Great Northern Railway in 1851. The driving force behind this enterprise was Grimthorpe's father, the Chairman of the Great Northern, who was described as ‘the greatest benefactor to Doncaster that the town has ever known’. The family came from Leeds where their considerable wealth was derived from the bank, Beckett and Co., which their ancestors had established in the city in the late eighteenth century, enabling the family to pursue the role of enlightened benefactors.
The destruction of St. George's provided a good opportunity for Grimthorpe’s father to demonstrate beneficence by donating £200 to the rebuilding fund. However his son gave £500 and was also able to give the people of Doncaster the benefit of his passionate interest in architecture. Grimthorpe went to Eton and graduated with distinction from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1838. He trained as a lawyer, was called to the Bar in 1841, and became a Queen's Counsel in 1854. While at Cambridge he developed an interest in mathematics and architecture, which was encouraged by his tutor William Whewell (1794-1866) who was to become Master of Trinity in 1841. Whewell was yet another of these versatile clerics, being Professor of Mineralogy and Professor of Moral Philosophy, and although he taught mathematics, his interest was in architecture.
Grimthorpe applied his mathematical interests to clock-making, and designed a clock for a church which his Beckett cousins were building in 1849, on their estate at Meanwood, near Leeds. It was here that he had his first encounter with an architect. This was William Railton (c.1801-77), the designer of Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, whom Grimthorpe accused of shabby tricks and an incompetent use of Gothic features in his church.
Grimthorpe designed the clock for the Houses of Parliament in association with a professional clock-maker, E. J. Dent, but when they and the architect, Sir Charles Barry, inspected the tower in course of construction, they found that it would not fit, and the clock had to be redesigned. Grimthorpe was furious and never forgave Barry. He had a notoriously combative approach to all his problems. There is no doubt that he enjoyed controversy and treated anybody who disagreed with him as an enemy to be exposed and crushed, and, from these encounters with architects, he assumed that the architectural profession was composed of fraudsters and incompetents. However he had not met Scott, who was neither, until Scott was appointed to rebuild St. George's Doncaster, perhaps due to the influence of the Hull Scotts.
It was to be larger church than before to accommodate the increased population. Everything was increased in size, including the tower, which, at 171 feet tall, became the tallest central parish church tower in England. His intention to reproduce the old Perpendicular tower ‘was subsequently modified into the reproduction of its general forms in an earlier style.’ This was undoubtedly due to pressure from Grimthorpe, as was the choice of Middle Pointed for the main body of the church. Grimthorpe thoroughly disliked the Perpendicular style. A Perpendicular church was, in fact, ‘more like a large greenhouse than anything else, consisting of nothing but windows and just as much wall as would stand between them’. Grimthorpe said that Dr. Whewell called the Geometrical style ‘the Complete Gothic’, as it converged at about the same time with the styles of France and Germany, and he had read that Scott in his Plea
concurred, by referring to it as ‘the Universal phase of Northern Gothic’.
In Grimthorpe’s eyes, Scott was clearly the man for the job, although the fact that his father-in-law, John Oldrid, was a major share-holder in the Great Northern, may have carried some weight. Scott described Grimthorpe as:
my friend & then my tormentor ... He was a strenuous supporter however of doing it well & a very liberal supporter of the funds & were it not that he has an unpleasant way of doing things which makes one hate ones best works I should have far more reason to thank than to complain of him.
Grimthorpe made his donation towards the reconstruction fund when he saw ‘a reasonable probability of the work being done as it ought to be’ and on being appointed to the Building Committee found Scott ‘quite above the professional vanity of refusing to listen to the suggestions of an amateur’. Much of the £40,000 required for the rebuilding was soon raised and the foundation stone was laid on the 28 February 1854, exactly one year after the old church burnt down. It was a cruciform plan with a central lantern. The contractor was Charles Treson junior of Northampton, the clerk of works, G. S. Cleverley. There is a considerable amount of decorative stone carving, particularly the foliated nave capitals, by Philip, while the elaborate open timber nave roof and the barrel ceiling to the chancel were the work of Francis Ruddle of Peterborough, who was to become Scott's favourite carpenter. Fittings included a circular pulpit, reredos and seating, with the woodwork by Ruddle.
Starting at Christmas 1854, Grimthorpe gave six lectures at the Town Hall to acquaint the people of Doncaster with the basics of Gothic architecture and to explain his reasoning behind his choice of Middle Pointed. He referred to Ruskin throughout the series but he disliked Southern Gothic and was irritated by Ruskin's lack of structural awareness. He asserted that buildings should express their construction with deep windows, high arches and thick mullions, as at Doncaster, and he increased the thickness of Scott's mullions but ‘still some of them are not thick enough’. St. George's was consecrated on 11 October 1858, although Scott confessed, ‘I am not proud of the tower, I missed the old outline, and I never see it without disappointment, though I do not think that this feeling is generally participated in’.
Christ Church - Doncaster
Scott enlarged this church between 1856-8, adding a new octagonal chancel incorporating the vestry on the north side. He also designed the reredos.
St James's - Doncaster
In 1858, another church in Doncaster, St. James's, was also consecrated. This, sited next to the railway works, was an attempt by Grimthorpe's family to cater for the spiritual needs of the railway workers. In 1855, his father, as chairman of the railway, had decided that the church would be paid for out of the company's profits, but the shareholders objected so a fund was opened to which Grimthorpe and his father were the major contributors. Scott was asked for his ideas but Grimthorpe seems to have decided that his own form of architecture would be best. It has a spikey west turret which sits awkwardly between two gables and has great thick window mullions, not at all like those designed by Scott. Scott oversaw the building to ‘Mr Denison’s’ designs, at a cost of £6400. As he said, ‘I built another Church there [Doncaster], on a general scheme of Mr Denison’s. I wonder if I have the original sketch – It would be amusing’. However, Grimthorpe liked Scott and used him on subsequent architectural enterprises.
Doncaster Grammar School, Thorne Road - Doncaster
On 18 December 1867, on land gifted by WH Forman, the foundation stone was laid for a new Grammar School that later became Hall Cross School. The school had previously been housed in St. George Gate but with an increase in numbers of students, larger premises were required and the vicar C. J. Vaughan, ex-head of Harrow School, suggested the move. WH Forman also donated £1,000 to the building of the school, the total cost, £6496, but on the condition that Scott was appointed architect for the new school building. He designed it in Geometric style, as at St George’s, in red brick with stone dressings, with an asymmetrical tower, the school opening in 1869.
St Oswald's - Farnham
Scott restored this church in 1854, providing a new chancel arch.
St Mary's - Goldsborough
In 1859, Scott restored the church and added a north porch and fittings including a pulpit and chancel screen.
St Thomas's - Green Hammerton
Scott designed and built the church in 1873-5 on land donated by the Lord of the Manor, Henry Farrer. It was completed in 1876 for the Rev. William Valentine, incumbent of the Parish. It is officially designated as a ‘Chapel of Ease’ so the parishioners need not walk to the Parish Church in Whixley. It is in late thirteenth century style, with course rubble walls and a bellcote. It has some stained glass by Clayton and Bell.
All Souls, Haley Hill, Boothtown - Halifax
St. George's, Doncaster, established Scott's reputation in the West Riding of Yorkshire and late in 1855, or early 1856, he was commissioned by Edward Akroyd (1810-87), the head of James Akroyd & Son, worsted manufacturers in Halifax, to build a new church on the north side of Halifax. Akroyd was one of the enlightened employers in the Yorkshire wool industry who took a paternalistic interest in the welfare of his workers, catering for their spiritual needs and their material requirements. In January 1853, with others including Sir Charles Wood the local M. P., he set up the Halifax Permanent Building Society to enable workers to build their own homes. In 1855 he purchased land close to his mill at Haley Hill, where the Society would advance the purchase price of new houses on Ackroyd’s guarantee.
Scott’s new church would provide a spectacular approach to Akroyd’s new development and the foundation stone of All Souls, as it became, was laid on 25 April 1856 with Scott’s drawings exhibited at the Royal Academy the same year. The stone carving was executed by Philip, the woodwork was by Rattee and Kett and the painted decorations were carried out by Clayton and Bell. Alfred Bell (1832-95) had become a pupil of Scott's in about 1846, and had worked on St. Nicholas. But he gave up architecture and, at Scott's instigation, in 1855 formed a partnership with Richard Clayton (1827-1913), which was to provide many of Scott's internal decorative schemes, as well as producing a considerable amount of stained glass, which was favoured more by other architects than Scott.
The consecration of All Souls', Haley Hill, took place on 2 November 1859, but it was not until the summer of 1862 that everything was completed with, ‘all the statues on the exterior having been placed in their niches, the interior carving and painting finished, and the painted glass windows inserted’. It had cost Akroyd the huge sum of £30,000. It is, of course, Middle Pointed in style, and built entirely in stone on a cruciform plan. As well as the tall tower and spire, which stands in the north-west corner, it has aisles, transepts and a full chancel. ‘The proportions of the interior are very good, and the whole effect very grand’, with many ‘costly materials freely used’, including Devonshire Marble, Italian marbles, alabaster and shafts of polished granite. Over the chancel arch, Henry Stacey Marks, while working for Clayton and Bell, painted a large fresco of the Adoration of the Lamb, and in the nave spandrels Philip carved medallions of the first English bishops. Scott considered it to be ‘…on the whole my best church’, although it was never meant to be so fine and Scott thought he could have perhaps been bolder.
All Souls Vicarage - Halifax
Scott also completed a Gothic style vicarage for the church at the same time as he was working on All Souls.
Halifax Town Hall - Halifax
Much of Akroyd’s urge to provide the best facilities for the people of Halifax may have been an attempt to match the philanthropy of the Crossley family, the other great mill owners in the town. They had employed local architects to design their two model villages and a great new chapel in the town centre. But Akroyd seems to have tried to outdo them by employing Scott, already an architect of national standing, for his church and housing. This rivalry extended to the provision of a town hall for the borough. In 1856 the Crossley’s submitted a design for a classical town hall by the Bradford firm of architects, Lockwood and Mawson. Crossley's would provide the site and pay for the tower of the building. Akroyd countered by commissioning Scott:
to design a Town Hall for Halifax to suit a site which he favoured. I made a design which I flatter myself was as good a thing of its kind & of its small size as had ever been made at the time …
This was Scott's first chance, since the Hamburg Rathaus scheme, to produce a design with the stateliness and dignity appropriate to its civic status, and also to provide a fitting memorial to the generosity of its benefactor. Clearly Scott had his Hamburg scheme and its Ypres prototype in mind when he made the design, as he reproduced their central tower and spire with balancing wings, but unfortunately it was a tiny building. Two drawings of it were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1857.
Nevertheless it is the first time that this formula, which was to become so popular for public buildings, had been applied to the design for an English town hall. Tenders for the work were received at £17000 plus £3000 for the decoration. The whole affair was degenerating into a furious controversy between the Crossley’s and Akroyd when, in 1859, Scott withdrew his scheme as it would not fit into a proposed new site. This left the way open for the Crossley’s to take over the project and they immediately commissioned Sir Charles Barry to design Halifax Town Hall, with Lockwood and Mawson designing the new streets around the building. Scott and Akroyd remained firm friends. In 1865 Akroyd went with Scott to Selby, where Scott was embarking on his second stage of restoration work, and in May 1873, Scott produced a report on Kirkstall Abbey in Leeds for Akroyd.
Workers' Cottages, Haley Hill, Boothtown - Halifax
It was in about 1859, while All Souls was being completed, that Akroyd’s housing scheme finally got underway. He must have read Scott's comments about the need for better housing for the poor, as he commissioned Scott to design the new village, which, unsurprisingly, he called Akroydon. This was Scott's first attempt at town planning and his opportunity to put into practice some of his ideas. But when the design was published, one critic wrote in 1860 that it was ‘antiquated, inconvenient, wanting in light, and not adapted to modern requirements’. It has a small central green as its focal point, on which would be a literary institute with a clock tower, and there was also to be public baths. The baths did not materialise but Scott’s housing was a considerable improvement on the usual efforts of speculative builders. He produced terraces of different designs, with a variety of gables, dormers, half-dormers, and even a change of storey heights. Each house had two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen, yard and access to a back lane.
Scott seems to have lost interest in Akroydon, and his work was taken over by William Henry Crossland (1823-1909), who was one of Scott's pupils in 1856. By about 1860, Crossland was in practice in Halifax, with most of his work in the north of England, including the Town Hall at Rochdale, which he won in a competition with a Middle Pointed design that could have come from Scott himself. However, his best-known work is the spectacular Royal Holloway College at Egham in Surrey, which he carried out between 1879 and 1887, in an early French Renaissance style.
Although Akroydon was never completed, Akroyd himself seems to have been something of an authority on workers housing, as in 1862 he published a paper entitled, On Improved Dwellings for the Working Classes. In 1857 he became the Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield and later represented Halifax. He was usually referred to as Colonel Akroyd, having been made a Lieutenant Colonel in the West Yorkshire and Halifax Volunteers in 1861.
St John the Baptist's report - Halifax
Scott completed a restoration report on this church in 1876.
St John the Baptist's - Halifax
Following his report, Scott restored the church in 1878-9, with John Oldrid, who continued the work after Scott's death. It was funded by local manufacturer Edward Akroyd and led by Dean Pigon, vicar of the church. Their work included removing galleries, taking plaster off the walls, the pews were lowered, and dormer windows in the aisles, a Queen Anne screen and a three decker pulpit were all removed. A pulpit by Farmer and Brindley was provided in 1879 plus a reredos by Thompson, and Burlinson and Grylls, in 1886. Fees of £832 were received by Scott’s office.
All Saints - Harewood
Scott's work for the Earl of Harewood was on his estate to the north of Leeds, where, in 1862-3, he supplied drawings for the restoration of Harewood Church, reorganising it by moving the monuments into the south chapel. The work was supervised by the Earl’s estate manager.
St Thomas's, Manchester Road - Huddersfield
This church was designed and built by Scott in 1857-9. The Vicar of Huddersfield, Canon Bateman, approached Scott, whose father had been Bateman's tutor and who had been a boyhood friend of his, on behalf of the Starkey family, who owned a local mill and wanted to found a church. The building cost £9,000, mainly provided by the Starkey family. The contractors were Messrs Ben Graham of Huddersfield and the clerk of works, Alfred A. Walton. It was built from coursed-dressed stone with ashlar dressings and pitched slate roofs, in Transitional or Geometric style with a Gothic broach spire. The first vicar was Mrs Starkey's nephew, Edmund Snowden.
All Souls, Blackman Lane - Leeds
Scott was engaged to provide a memorial to Dean Hook, who he had known at Chichester. This was a new church in what had once been a prosperous north-western suburb of Leeds. But by the time the church was planned, it had turned into an area of close-packed industrial housing, providing fertile ground for the continuation of Hook’s work. Most of this housing has since been removed and the area redeveloped.
The foundation stone for the church was laid on 2 September 1876 and work started in 1877. It is a large Early-English style building which Scott originally proposed should have a central tower but this was omitted. When it was first built, the only relief to its barn-like appearance was a tall turret with a conical roof in the south-east corner. The church was not consecrated until 29 January 1880, so John Oldrid finished the work by decorating the chancel, installing another pulpit by Hill, adding a reredos by Farmer and Brindley, a screen by Skidmore and building a tower in the north-west corner. All this was finally completed in 1908.
Monument for Dean Hook, St Peter's, Kirkgate - Leeds
Whilst at Leeds Scott was engaged to provide two memorials for Dean Hook, All Souls Church being the first. The second was in the sanctuary of Hook's own church, St. Peter's, where Scott erected a table-tomb for the Rev. T. J. Wood, designed in around 1875. In contrast to the Chichester cenotaph, this is an elaborate affair with a white marble recumbent effigy by William Day Keyworth on a slab supported by finely carved open alabaster arches.
St Andrew's, Cavendish Street - Leeds
This was a Church Commissioner’s Church built in 1843-5, by Scott and Moffatt, at a cost of £3972. Pevsner describes it as ‘dull’, and it had lancet windows and a turret, with 149 pews and 581 free seats. It was demolished in around 1959.
St Andrew's School - Leeds
At the same time as building the church, Scott and Moffatt also built the associated school, also now demolished.
St John the Evangelist's, Sweet Street, Holbeck - Leeds
This church was designed and built by Scott in 1847-50 in a heavily industrialised area of the city for the brothers James Garth Marshall, M.P., and Henry Cowper Marshall. Scott described it as a ‘special’ work in his Recollections. A drawing of the interior was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1851. During the slum clearances of the 1930s, the church was demolished although the pulpit, lectern and communion benches may have survived in the new church of St John and St Barnabas, Low Grange View, Belle Isle.
St John's, Briggate - Leeds
In 1866, Scott was sought out and wrote a report about the Jacobean church to save it from destruction. The restoration of the church and its fittings was carried out by Richard Norman Shaw the following two years. Scott later used it as an example of his good restoration practice when being attacked by the anti-restorationists in 1877. No doubt he wanted to remind his critics of his regard for Jacobean work, as well as his friendship with the rising star of the time. In his eyes this was better than the ‘do nothing’ system which, for example, resulted in the collapse of Buckingham church tower. He wished ‘The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings’ success ‘in all their reasonable endeavours’ and warned it against trying to persuade people that it is wrong to restore churches from motives of religion.
Beckett's Bank, Park Row - Leeds
In July 1872 Scott described Preston Town Hall and Kelham as among his ‘best works’, along with ‘Leeds Bank’, and as examples of his personal style. Grimthorpe's family bank, Beckett and Company, was situated in the business centre of Leeds in Park Row. Scott worked out some preliminary ideas in the sketch books that he was using in 1862 and the foundation stone was laid on 19. August 1863. It was a U shaped symmetrical building on a square site, with the base of the U forming the main front on to Park Row. The building was two stories high and built of thin shiny red bricks especially made by Robert Bond of Thirsk, which were set in dark mortar, with stone dressings from a quarry near Halifax.
The public entrance in the centre of the Park Row front was through a deep projecting porch with a vaulted ceiling. The first floor windows were all pointed while those at the ground floor level were round-headed. Scott had seen a mixture of pointed and round-headed openings in the same building on his Italian travels, particularly in Verona, and had no compunction in applying the mixture to the facade of this Yorkshire banking house.
Scott worked with William Perkin, of the Leeds firm of architects, Perkin and Backhouse, and Perkin designed most of the interior of the Leeds bank including a great top-lit banking hall in the centre of the U. Many of Scott's favourite craftsmen and suppliers were employed on the building, including Farmer and Brindley on the carving, Skidmore as gas fitters, and Minton supplying the encaustic floor tiles. The Becketts did not stint on the building, and by the time that it was completed in 1867, it had cost a massive £33,000. In 1921 the business was incorporated into the Westminster Bank, and by 1964, Scott's reproduction of an Italian banking house was hardly appropriate for modern banking and it was swept away to be replaced by more up-to-date premises.
Leeds Infirmary - Leeds
No such fate has happened to Scott's other work in Leeds, which was built at the same time as the bank. This, his largest building in the city, was the General Infirmary, and again the Becketts were involved. The population of Leeds, like so many other industrial cities at the time, exploded in the early part of the nineteenth century; in 1801 it was 53,000, but by 1861 it had quadrupled to a massive 201,153. Clearly the eighteenth century hospital was incapable of coping with this enormous population and a new infirmary was required. In 1861 an architectural competition was held for a design to rebuild the infirmary on its existing site in the centre of the city which was won by the Bradford firm of Lockwood and Mawson. But it was soon realised that the old site was too constricted for the 280 bed spaces required, so the competition result was set aside and in 1862 Scott was called in to produce a design for a larger site on sloping ground, one third of a mile to the north.
Scott's appointment came, presumably, through Grimthorpe's enlightened brother, William Beckett (1826-1890) the banker, who was a member of the building committee ‘and a notable benefactor of the Infirmary’. But it is a measure of the extent of Scott’s national standing that he replaced a highly respected local firm of architects.
Not since the days of Scott and Moffatt had Scott been required to produce a design for such a large institutional building. He set about planning the building with his usual energy and enthusiasm. According to Alexander Graham (1829/30-1912), who later became a well-known hospital architect, he took Scott in 1862 to see the small hospital at the cavalry barracks in Hounslow, to the west of London. This had been built the year before in accordance with the recommendations of a commission set up in 1856, at the instigation of Florence Nightingale, with the aim of improving the sanitary condition of the army's barracks and hospitals. With her so-called pavilion principle, wards were considered as almost independent, widely spaced, buildings, each with its own sanitary block at the opposite end to the entrance, which is off a linking corridor. Light and fresh air were also of paramount importance. The first large civilian hospital to be completed in accordance with the Nightingale rules was the Leeds Infirmary.
William Beckett corresponded with Florence Nightingale on the design of Leeds Infirmary, and soon after his appointment in March 1862, Scott went to look at continental hospitals with Dr. Charles Chadwick, the senior physician at the hospital. His sketch book for 1862, which also contains his preliminary designs for Leeds Infirmary, shows that he sketched the Lariboisiere Hospital in Paris and the Hospice des Vieillards at Ghent. They then returned and Scott submitted his first proposals for Leeds in September 1862, which were approved. A drawing of his intended infirmary was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863.
As Scott was finalising his design for Beckett's Bank at the same time, he gave a lecture to the Leeds Philosophical Society on ‘the Gothic Renaissance’, presumably to explain his reasons to the people of Leeds for using his style in their city. It seems that he reiterated the old arguments that he had used in the Remarks , and in his first lecture at the Royal Academy in 1857.
The foundation stone for the new Leeds Infirmary was not laid until March 1864. Scott handled the sloping site with skill and orientated the two storied ward pavilions on a north-south axis in accordance with the Nightingale rules. These extend from a central court placed mid-way across the site with a public entrance on the west side. The pavilions are set seventy-five feet apart, each with its own staircase and hoist to the service area below. At the far end from the court, each pavilion has two sanitary towers, as Nightingale ruled, but for the first time Scott set these at an angle, enabling more light to enter the wards. Splayed sanitary towers became a popular feature in the great hospital designs in the later years of the nineteenth century, when a more eclectic approach by architects made such stylistic irregularities acceptable.
In spite of complicated planning requirements, Scott's Leeds Infirmary, was, or at least appeared externally, as a symmetrical building with a show front towards the city. In the centre of this front was the administration block connected by single storey ranges to the ends of two ward pavilions. The construction is of brick with stone dressings and steep-pitched slate roofs. R. M. Ordish assisted Scott with the roof. Nearly all the windows are pointed with a considerable amount of plate tracery and alternating voussiors.
The opening ceremony, by the Prince of Wales, took place in May 1868, but instead of accepting patients and starting to function as a hospital, such enormous debts had accrued during construction, that it was decided to raise funds with the somewhat bizarre idea of turning the whole building into a ‘National Exhibition of Works of Art’. The intended wards were filled with Old Masters, English oil paintings and watercolours, with one ward becoming the refreshment room. But in spite of over half a million visitors during the six months that it was open, it lost money and failed in its intention. The pioneering aspect of the Leeds Infirmary design was soon forgotten as other large pavilion hospitals followed rapidly in its wake. Even in the year that it first admitted patients, Galton was pointing out its defects to the British Medical Association, who were meeting in Leeds at the time. Heating and ventilation was his main concern, but some of these problems would not have arisen if the court had been left unroofed as Scott had originally intended. Another critic, in 1883, felt that it was ‘evident that the architectural has dominated over the practical interests, and therefore this otherwise magnificent building can scarcely be deemed a model one’. But the fact that today it is still used for its original purpose, although considerably altered and extended, is a testimony of the effectiveness of Scott's design, but he never built another hospital of this scale. His only other buildings with a similar purpose were a small dispensary at St. Albans, and a cottage hospital at Savernake, near Marlborough in Wiltshire, the following year.
Kirkstall Abbey - Leeds
In May 1873, Scott carried out a report on the cost of restoration for Akroyd, which was estimated at £34,250. No actual work by him is apparent at the abbey.
St Katherine's - Loversall
Aside from the tower, Scott rebuilt this church between 1854-6, focussing, in particular, on the nave.
St Mary the Virgin - Mirfield
Scott rebuilt this church incorporating the tower of the previous church into his design. It was built in Early English style with lancet windows and plate tracery, between 1869-74, at a cost of over £30000, raised by the vicar, the Rev. Ralph Muade, through public subscription. The east window is by Burlinson and Grylls.
All Saints - Owston
Scott restored the chancel at this church in 1872-3.
Ripon Cathedral - Ripon
In contrast to the grandeur of the Three Choirs cathedrals, Ripon is one of the smallest of the English cathedrals. It is set in a remote part of Yorkshire, twenty-four miles due north of Leeds, but in a completely different environment to the industrialization and massive urban sprawl of that city. It became a cathedral in 1836, when the diocese of Ripon was formed out of that of York, and included Leeds.
In June 1857, Robert Bickersteth (1816-1884), who had a considerable reputation as an evangelical preacher, was consecrated as the Bishop of Ripon. His brother was Scott's ‘valued friend & patron’, Edward Bickersteth, the Vicar of Aylesbury, and their cousin, Edward Henry Bickersteth (1825-1906), was the Vicar of Scott’s church, Christchurch, Hampstead. Clearly Scott's spiritual outlook as well as his professional abilities were well known to the Bishop in 1859, when he was called in to examine his old cathedral. In 1860, Palmerston's appointment of William Goode (1801-1868) as the Dean gave Scott another friend at Ripon. In his Recollections
Scott mentions that a ‘Mr. Goode uncle to the present dean of Ripon’ was among the friends from Buckingham who accompanied him and his aunt a trip to Margate when he was a small boy.
Because of the imperative to revise his designs for the Government Offices, the cathedral authorities seem to have been sympathetic to Scott’s problems and allowed him two years to produce his report. In 1861 he eventually surveyed the cathedral, and at a meeting at Ripon Town Hall on 4 October, he presented his report. He proposed constructing a new nave roof, improvements to the ceilings of the choir and transepts where the joinery was made from paper mache, heating and lighting, and although not carried out, he proposed to restore the spires to the west towers. He said that all this would cost £17,000, and immediately £10,000 was pledged towards the work at the meeting.
This was an encouraging start, but because of the inherent structural problems of the old building he was once again required to use his considerable expertise as a sound builder, and even his £17,000 estimate was completely inadequate to cover the amount of money actually needed to make the building stable. The west front, in particular, required urgent attention. Work began in 1862. Scott ensured that it would be carried out properly by engaging Ruddle and Thompson of Peterborough as the contractors, and bringing George Clark from Lichfield to be the Clerk of Works.
The problem with the west front was that the foundations to the two western towers which flanked it were never adequate and as graves had been dug below them, the towers had sunk, producing huge cracks in all their walls. He said that:
The cracks were nearly a foot wide!
We underbuilt the walls for some 12 feet below their old foundations proping them meanwhile with an enormous mass of Timber shoring The danger was terrific! At one time a perfect avalanche of rubble roared in upon the men engaged below from the centre of the wall over their heads! Thank God however it was effected The tower was tied with Iron at every storey the cracks built up & bonded across & the Towers are now sound & strong.
The central tower was also ‘very feeble, much cracked, and requiring very considerable repairs’. The twelfth century walls were falling away from those of the sixteenth century, so Scott introduced the big iron lattice girders which can be seen at triforium level inside the tower. He laments that while working on the tower, ‘in some places My over zealous clerk of works introduced too much new Stone One ought to be always on the spot to prevent this’, and in 1872 he says that he thought that Clark had ‘ruined his health by his close attention to the work’. However, in 1877 he was able to say that although ‘for several years he was laid by & supposed to be so for life but happily he has recovered & has now been 2 or 3 years at work again’.
Externally Scott raised the roof of the choir to its original pitch and in doing so had to provide a new gable over the fine late thirteenth century east window. He flanked this with large pinnacles and buttresses to make it into a spectacular eastern facade. But at the west end his work gave rise to considerable controversy, not for what he restored, but rather for what he removed.
The west front consists of two tiers of great lancets virtually filling the whole of the wall with three doorways below. In the fourteenth century many older windows had tracery and mullions added and these included the thirteenth century lancets on the west end. According to Scott these applications:
were of an inferior stone & had decayed & given way so as to be only prevented from precipitating themselves into the Nave by beams of wood placed across them. I found them to be beyond the reach of repair & having once taken them out the beauty of the earlier design was so apparent that it seemed barbarous to introduce new ones so the windows now retain their original design.
It was a bold decision for Scott not to reinstate to the fourteenth century work. Ever since he had discovered ‘the five noble lancets’ at Chetwode during his youthful exploration of Buckinghamshire churches, he seems to have been enamoured with groups of plain lancets and used them extensively. At the east end of Hereford Cathedral he also converted windows into plain lancets by removing their tracery, without, apparently, giving rise to any controversy, but at Ripon it was different. He says that he was ‘blamed’ for the loss of the tracery, but his critics were probably silenced when, much to Scott's satisfaction, Edmund Sharpe, the acknowledged expert on Decorated window tracery, gave an unsolicited approval of Scott's work.
By July 1872 Scott said:
I am now removing a horrid modern flat Ceiling from the Nave & introducing Oak Vaults founded on that of the transepts at York. They cannot afford to raise the roof to its proper pitch but I hope this may one day follow.
He completed the nave ceiling with a pattern of intersecting ribs forming a barrel-vault with small transverse vaults. He vaulted the nave aisles in stone but his proposal to raise the nave roof never materialized. As with most of his cathedral restorations, a large part of Scott's work at Ripon centred on reorganising the choir into a place more appropriate for the Victorian idea of Anglican worship.
The arrangements were difficult and unsatisfactory The old rood screen remaining I acted on my principle of not disturbing it - but as the cathedral is also a parish church the whole parochial congregation has to be crammed into the eastern arm. I found this effected by side galleries & a kind of stage boxes …
A view of the chancel made after Blore's restoration, and before Scott started work, shows a range of what looks like Jacobean stalls to the east of medieval stalls and beyond pews, with galleries over the aisles. Scott removed the galleries and the enclosed pews:
which had been formed in part of some interesting old work, of which [I] could not ascertain its origin. This I earnestly begged should be preserved, but I fear that it has been since dispersed.
He seamlessly extended the fine design of the late fifteenth century stalls eastwards incorporating much old work, repaved the choir and raised the area east of his new stalls by one step, paving it with a diagonal pattern of different coloured marbles. A medieval stone altar was installed, but this was lost when the present High Altar, designed by Sir Ninian Comper, was erected between 1922 and 1923.
As work on the choir was nearing completion, Scott must have been upset to lose his friend and champion, Dean Goode. He had taken a leading role in the restoration and died very suddenly on 13 August 1868, at his wife’s home at Penmaenmaur in North Wales, where Scott designed a simple Celtic cross to mark his grave.
The choir was reopened on 27 January 1869 and the nave on 24 October 1872, but Scott was still to carry out further work on Ripon on the organ case.
The total cost of Scott's restoration eventually exceeded £40,000 but he left the cathedral in a sound structural state. A considerable amount of refacing and alteration has taken place since, but Scott's work has remained remarkably complete, particularly considering that the arch-classicist of the twentieth century, Sir Albert Richardson, restored the cathedral in 1956. Although he had no interest in the Gothic Revival, Richardson, contrary to the fashion of his day, respected Scott's work.
Ripon Cathedral Organ Case - Ripon
In 1876, Scott produced plans for a new organ case at Ripon to stand on the rood screen and in November his design was approved by Bickersteth. This is a massive affair, which fills the lower part of the chancel arch, and apart from a glimpse of the vaulting, almost completely obscures any view of the choir from the nave. He placed the organist on a balcony on top of the screen overlooking the choir but the cathedral organist complained that this was an absurd position from which to conduct the choir and wanted the screen removed. But by the 1860's Scott seems to have abandoned the idea of removing solid choir screens and replacing them with openwork screens. The Ripon screen was, in fact, a fine late fifteenth century structure which had lost its figures in 1547 and regained them only in 1947. Scott removed a stone pulpit which stood on top of the screen but he would have considered the complete removal of such a fine old screen to be an act of vandalism, particularly as the return choir stalls backed on to it.
All Saints - Rotherham
Scott began a full restoration at this church in 1873-5. The galleries were removed, the stonework cleaned and repaired and the oak roofs restored, at a cost of £10000. The Earl and Countess of Effingham provided the high altar and accompanying furniture, along with the east window in the chancel which was made by Clayton and Bell. They also paid for the reredos in 1876, the fees of £31 being received by Scott’s office.
Selby Abbey survey - Selby
The transformation from a large dilapidated parish church into a grand cathedral-like structure started in 1850 when Scott carried out a survey of the abbey. An appeal was launched, which raised £1,500, and the restoration of the chancel was started a couple of years later.
Selby Abbey - Selby
When Scott visited Selby Abbey with Akroyd in 1865, he had already been working there for thirteen years. The transformation from a large dilapidated parish church into a grand cathedral-like structure started in 1850 when Scott carried out a survey of the abbey. An appeal was launched, which raised £1,500, and the restoration of the chancel was started in 1852, not without its problems. Little more was done until after Scott had inspected the abbey with Akroyd in 1865. He then proposed a massive restoration of the whole church, including rebuilding its ugly Georgian tower, replacing the missing south transept, reconstructing the west front with twin towers, and securing the south wall. All of this would cost the enormous sum of £50,000, so clearly it would be a considerable time before enough funds were available to fully implement Scott's grand proposals.
Scott's main improvement was to open-up the whole of the interior of Selby by removing a partition which separated the nave from the chancel. In 1873 he raised the roof and inserted a new gable over the west front to accommodate the higher pitch, as well as tidying up the west front, but this was his last work at Selby before his death. John Oldrid carried on with his father’s plans and he was succeeded by his own son, Charles Marriot Oldrid Scott, who completed the work in 1935 by heightening the western towers.
Holy Trinity reredos - Skipton-in-Craven
There is a carved stone reredos designed by Scott here, possibly around the time of its restoration after in lightning strike in 1853-4 by John Cory of Carlisle, or maybe later in 1870.
All Saints - Wakefield
Scott restored the church between 1858-74, renewing the exterior including rebuilding the spire, tower and the south front. The rebuilding of the spire and tower cost over £5000 with Edward Latham as stone mason. Scott also worked on the chancel and re-ordered the interior, removing galleries and replacing pews. J. T. Micklethwaite was the clerk of works. It became a cathedral in 1888.
Bridge Chapel report - Wakefield
After consultation with the Yorkshire Architectural Society, Scott’s plans were chosen for the restoration of the chantry chapel in 1843.
Bridge Chapel - Wakefield
In 1847-8, Scott rebuilt the chantry chapel from the bridge level, helped by Burlinson, at a cost of £2500. The stone mason, Cox, sold the original front to stand in a gentleman’s park and built a new one in Caen stone, ‘contrary to the very principles of my own report’, as Scott put it. The 'park' belonged to the Norton family and it was in Kettlethorpe Hall until destroyed by vandals in the 1990s, although Scott still gets the blame both for the use of Caen stone whose bad weathering properties he was well aware of and for replacing the front. He is later reported to have said in the Ecclesiologist, ‘It was in an evil hour that I yeilded, and allowed a new front in Caen stone in place of the weather-beton old one ... I never repented it but once, and that has been ever since ... I think of this with the utmost shame and chagrin’. He apparently offered to have the old front replaced in its original position and contribute to the cost, but nothing further was done.
St Andrew's - Wakefield
This was a church designed and built in partnership with Moffatt in 1845-6. It is in Early English style, with lancets, a bellcote and steep roofs. The interior was reordered and renewed in the 1970s, after a merger with the parish of St Mary's in the 1960s.
St Barnabus's - Weeton
This church was designed by Scott in 1851-3 for the Earl of Harewood, but executed by E. H. Shellard. It has a cruciform plan, with a south porch, a central tower and a tall broach spire. The work was supervised by the Earl’s estate manager.
Church of the Ascension - Whixley
Scott restored this church in 1860-3, repairing and reseating the church. There is a fine marble reredos and an exceptional organ by Foster and Andrews of Hull.